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Changing traditions

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Class 10 Class 12
For what achievements or reasons in each of the following people famous ?
Petrarch, Michelangelo, Raphael, Thomas Moore, Machiavelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Gutenberg, Martin Luther, Wycliffe Galileo, Copernicus, Dante, John Muss, Francis Bacon, Henry VIII.

1. Petrarch : He was a great poet and historian of Italy. He was a poet of Renaissance. He criticises the weakness of the society of his times through his poems which were written in Italian language. He is also considered the first Humanist.

2. Michelangelo : He was a great artist of Renaissance. His creations 'The fall of the man' and "The last judgement", are cosidered to be the masterpieces of art throughout the world. His paintings give deep interpretation to human life and humanity.

3. Raphael : He was great artist of Italy. He did his paintings in the times of the Renaissance in Italy. He is counted among the best artists of the world. His most famous work is the painting of "Madonna".

4. Thomus Moore : He was a great writer and scholar of England of the Renaissance period. His literacy master piece called "Utopia". In this book he has ridiculed the bad practices of the contemporary society.

5. Machiavelli : He was a famous historian of Florince. He is regarded as the "Father of the Modern Political Science". In his notable book "The Prince" he painted the picture of an imaginary state. He was in favour of keeping separate, the politics and religion.

6. Leonardo-da-Vinci : Leonardo was a great artist of Italy. He was a man of multiple talents. He was a poet, singer, painter, sculptor, philosopher, scientist and engineer.
He knew many languages also. He painted many pictures during the Renaissance period. His two paintings i.e. "The Last Supper" and "Mona Lisa" are still admired throughout the world.

7. Gutenberg : He was a great scholar of Germany. He invented the printing press during the Renaissance period. The Bible of Gutenburg was probably the first book which was printed in Europe.
His invention of the printing press proved very much helpful in the spread of education and knowledge in Europe.

8. Martin Luther : He was a German Clergyman. He was one of the greatest exponents of the Protestant Movements. He was unhappy to see the corruption in the Roman Catholic Church.
Therefore he openly opposed and criticised the corrupt practices of the Priests. He translated Bible into German language.

9. Wycliffe : He was a reformer clergyman of England. He was unhappy to see corruption in the Roman Catholic Church. He exposed the immoral an luxurious living of the priests of his times. He also condemned the interference of the Church in secular affairs. He translated the Bible in English language.

10. Galileo : He was an Italian scientist. He was the inventor of the telescope. He discovered several astronomical truths by looking through his telescope. He accepted the principle of Copernicus that the earth rotates upon its axis and revolves round the sun.

11. Copernicus : He was the first Europeon scientist of the Renaissance period. He was resident of Poland. He discovered that the earth rotates upon its axis and revolves round the sun.
As this invention of Copernicus was contrary to the contemporary Christian beliefs, he had to suffer at the hand of the Catholic Church.

12. Dante : He was a great poet of Italy. He wrote his poems in Lartin as well as Italian.
In his famous epic poem "The Divine Comedy" he ridiculed the religious beliefs and practices of his age. He is considered one of the greatest poets among the Renaissance poets.

13. John Huss : He was a professor in the Prague University. He preached among the people the corrupt practices of the Church and said that the Church should not interfere in the personal activities of human beings.
In 1415 the Pope called him to attend a religious conference there he was burnt alive by the Pope's orders for his criticism of the Church.

14 Francis Bacon : He was a great scholar and author of England of the Renaissance Age. He wrote many scholarly essays on the topics of the contemporary interest. He enlightened the people with his writing.

15. Henry VIII : He was the ruler of England from 1509 to 1512 A.D. He was instrumental in bringing the reformation movement to England over the question of divorcing his wife Catherine.
He broke all the connections with the Pope, when the latter tried to put him off. In this connection he got various Acts passed by the Parliament. By the Act of Supremacy he himself became the head of the State. By the Act of Appeal he forbade the practice of sending appeals to the Pope from the Court of England.


How did the spread of Islam, the crusades and growth of cities help in bringing about the Renaissance in Western Europe?

1. Spread of Islam : During the Middle Ages, a new religion-Islam spread rapidly. In 1493 the Turks conquerred constantinaople. As a result most of the Christian scholars fled from Constantinople to Italy and some of other places.
They spread among the people the spirit of reasoning, enquiry and free thinking which led to the Renaissance Movement.

2. The Crusades : During the crusades many fanatic lords and barons had died. Moreover the people came in contact with the developed culture of the Arabs. The new ideas inspired them to think freely.
They started learning the superstitions and narrow mindedness which proved helpful in bringing the Renaissance.

3. Growth of Cities and Towns : The decline of feudalism promoted the growth of free cities where trade, commerce and industry grew quite rapidly. The trading class became rich and it set up several schools and colleges. The spread of learning struck at the roots of the superstitions.

Tips: -

 (V.Imp.)

What changes the Renaissance brought about in the contemporary life of the people ?

1. The age old superstitions and evil practices came to an end. The new ideas rational outlook and scientific beliefs were adopted by the people.

2. Renaissance preached humanism. It inspired the contemporary writers, artists and philosophers to take up man as their main subject.

3. People discarded the old values and adopted scientific outlook.

4. Many schools and colleges were established at various places. The education spread rapidly.

Tips: -

(V. Imp.)

Explain the meaning of the following terms :
The Protestant Reformation, Roman Catholics, Counter-Reformation, Humanism, Heretic, Mercantilism, Nation-State, "Gold, Glory and God", Holy Roman Empire?

1. Protestant Reformation : This movement was started by a German clergyman Martin Luther against the corrupt practices of the Roman Catholic church in the 16th Century. As a result of this movement, Christianity was divided between the Roman Catholic and the Protestant Churches.

2. Counter Reformation : This movement was started by the Roman Catholic Church to counter the effects of the Protestant Reformation, which was spreading very rapidly, is known a counter Reformation. According to this movement the Catholic Church tried to reform itself of some of its objectionable practices.
For example now the Bishops were appointed on the basis of ability. This movement tried to recover the last influence of the Roman Church.

3. Humanism : It is a philosophy of life. It stressed the importance of man and his sentiments rather than the religious matters. During the Renaissance period the influence of Humanism was much evident in art, science and literature.
The exponents of Humanism believed that the worldly problems of man should be solved first and then man should think about God, Heaven etc.

4. Heretics : All those persons who criticised their corrupt and objectionable practices of the Roman Catholic Church were called 'Heretics'. They were heavily punished by the Pope.
Sometimes they were burnt alive. John Huss, a professor of Prague University was also declared 'Heretic' by the Pope and was burnt alive by his orders.

5. Mecantilism : It is a theory of economics which measured the wealth of a country according to the amount of precious metals, particularly gold. The exponents of this theory insist that a country should export the maximum quantity of goods and should restrict its import in order to maintain the balance of trade and to increase her gold reserves.

6. Nation-States : The Nation-States were established in the Renaissance Period. These States were governed by a strong political ruler. These States used to keep themselves free from all kinds of foreign interference, political or religious.
The Nation-States used to have common language and common philosophy. They were governed by a uniform Code of Laws.

7. Gold, Glory and God : During the end of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th centuries, the European nations had only three motives Gold, Glory and God. Most of the nations were after the material wealth i.e. Gold.
Some other nations were inspired to achieve Glory of being the discoverers of new lands or founders of new Empires. Still there were some other nations who were inspired by the zeal of spreading their religion i.e. the message of God.

8. Absolutism : In 16th century there was the emergence of new political system which is known as absolutism or despotism. The European rulers, who believed in the divine rights of the King.
They said that they had got the power to rule directly from God. They preached that if the people disobeyed them, they would be disobeying God.

9. Despotism : Despotism means arbitrary rule. Under despotism, the despot's will regins supreme.


What practices of the Roman Catholic Church and Churchmen of 15th and 16th centuries did the reformers objects to ?

1. They raised objection against the luxurious and immoral life of the Churchmen.

2. The reformers also objected the undesirable methods of extracting money from the common man.

3. They objected against the practice of selling the offices of the Church to inefficient, immoral and corrupt persons.

4. They protested the Pope's authority to raise such taxes and fees as would make the Pope and his Bishops to live in luxury.