2. The State is rich in forest resources and has very fertile land for agricultural purposes. It has extremely rich gold mines. The most popular trade here is of gold and ivory.
3. During Iron age the people were highly developed by refining iron from ore and utilizing the refined form to make utensils, tools, weapons, etc. Metallurgical processing of other metals and making alloys had been a popular hobby of its people.
Tips: -(V. Imp.)
Influence of Islam on the African Civilization :
(i) Prosperity : The people became prosperous due to brisk trade and commerce with other countries.
(ii) Construction of Mosques and Tombs : The influence of Islam caused the construction of many mosques, forts and tombs.
(iii) New Language : The ‘Swahili’ language sprang up as a result of intermingling of Bantu and Arabic languages.
(iv) Centres of Islamic Culture : The African states became centres of Islamic education and culture. The Arab scholars reached there and wrote the history of Africa.
(i) The people of Kush Civilization adopted the Egyptian heiroglyphic script for their records at the early stage.
(ii) The Egyptian influence is evident on the architecture of the Kush Civilization.
(iii) In the Kush kingdom, the kings were regarded as divine beings like the Egyptian kings.
(iv) The Gods in some regions of the Kush empire were similar to the Egyptian gods.
2. “Meroe” the capital of Kush known as Birmingham of Central Africa.
A city of England named Birmingham is famous in the world for the huge stocks and extensive use of iron in the whole world. In the same manner the “Meroe” is called the Birmingham of Central Africa.
(i) The soil in most parts of Africa is not very fertile. Therefore, the tilling for cultivation was very difficult.
(ii) Most of African land was covered with thick jungles. In those days to clear the land to make it fit for agriculture was almost impossible.
(iii) African climate was very hot. There were no sources of irrigation so the cultivation could not be done earlier.
(iv) The African people learnt the use of iron at the later stage than the people of the other parts of the world. It was also a factor responsible for the beginning of agriculture in Africa.
2. Corn cultivation was central to their culture, and many religious ceremonies were centred on the planting, growing and harvesting of corn.
3. Efficient agricultural production generated surplus, which helped the ruling classes, priests and chiefs to invest in architecture and in the development of astronomy and mathematics.
4. The Mayas devised a pictographic form of writing that has only been partially deciphered.
Maya Temple, Guatewala