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Changing traditions

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Class 10 Class 12
When did Islam spread to Africa ?
What was its effects on the African Civilization ?

1. Islam spreading to Africa : Islam started in the 8th century and went on spreading to 16th century.

2. Islam's influence : Many African States became the centre of Islam. As as result trade increased and culture developed. Islam had a deep influence on the life of people of east Africa.
They developed cultural and business ties with the people. As a result of this contact a new language ‘Swahili’ developed.

Why did the food-producing stage in some parts of Africa start later than in some other parts of the world ?

1. Barren Land : The land in Africa was not fertile. There were no means of irrigation. Agriculture developed there very late.

2. Dense Forests : There were many dense forests in Africa. It was necessary to clear the forests to make the land fit for agriculture. It was not easy to clear the forests.

3. No Knowledge on Metals : The African learnt the knowledge of metals very late. They worked with stone weapons. It was not easy to clear the forests with these weapons.

In what way the important Geographical Discoveries of the 16th Century were responsible for bringing the Modern Age?

1. Establishing of Trade Companies and Colonies : The Geographical discoveries led to the creation of intimate relationship between sailors and the traders.
The Europeans, Portuguese, the English, French and the Dutch established their companies to trade with India. They also built their empires in America.

2. Slave Trade : These voyages encourages to the slave trade.

3. Spread of European Civilization : The Europeans not only established their companies and colonies but also spread their civilization in several other countries.

4. Prosperity : The discoveries of new lands and sea routes promoted trade and made many countries prosperous.

5. Exchange of Knowledge : The new discoveries enlightened the people. Their outlook was broadened and they gave up their silly faiths and hollow superstitions. Thus, it helped in bringing about the Modern Age.

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What were the most important achievements of the Mayans ? 

1. Complete Calender : The Mayan Calendar contained 365 days. There were 18 months in a year. Each month had 20 days. The rest of 5 days were considered bad time.

2. Knowledge of Mathematics : They had knowledge of Mathematics. They had a symbol for zero.

3. Script : Their script was hieroglyphics. They wrote through pictures.

4. Use of Paper : They used paper for writing.

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Describe the importance of Iron in the growth of civilization in Africa. 

1. Iron brought improvement in agriculture. With the improvement of agriculture, there was progressive civilization.

2. From the beginning of Christian Era to 1200 A.D. Iron spread its influence all over the continent.

3. The Iron weapons helped in winning wars.

4. The Lunda empire in Africa became most powerful with the existence of large quantity of iron and copper.

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(V. Imp.)