2. Islam's influence : Many African States became the centre of Islam. As as result trade increased and culture developed. Islam had a deep influence on the life of people of east Africa.
They developed cultural and business ties with the people. As a result of this contact a new language ‘Swahili’ developed.
2. Dense Forests : There were many dense forests in Africa. It was necessary to clear the forests to make the land fit for agriculture. It was not easy to clear the forests.
3. No Knowledge on Metals : The African learnt the knowledge of metals very late. They worked with stone weapons. It was not easy to clear the forests with these weapons.
2. Slave Trade : These voyages encourages to the slave trade.
3. Spread of European Civilization : The Europeans not only established their companies and colonies but also spread their civilization in several other countries.
4. Prosperity : The discoveries of new lands and sea routes promoted trade and made many countries prosperous.
5. Exchange of Knowledge : The new discoveries enlightened the people. Their outlook was broadened and they gave up their silly faiths and hollow superstitions. Thus, it helped in bringing about the Modern Age.
2. Knowledge of Mathematics : They had knowledge of Mathematics. They had a symbol for zero.
3. Script : Their script was hieroglyphics. They wrote through pictures.
4. Use of Paper : They used paper for writing.
2. From the beginning of Christian Era to 1200 A.D. Iron spread its influence all over the continent.
3. The Iron weapons helped in winning wars.
4. The Lunda empire in Africa became most powerful with the existence of large quantity of iron and copper.
Tips: -(V. Imp.)