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Class 10 Class 12

Describe the Lactational Amenorrhea method of birth control.

Lactational amenorrhea method is a natural method of birth control. In this breastfeeding delays the onset of menstruation in new mothers. Breastfeeding halts the release of hormone that triggers ovulation. Is is based on the fact that ovulation does not occur during the period of intense lactation following parturition. 

A large number of married couples the world over are childless. It is shocking to know that in India the female partner is often blamed for the couple being childless.
(a) Why in your opinion the female partner is often blamed for such situations in India ? Mention any two values that you as a biology student can promote to check this social evil.
(b) State any two reasons responsible for the cause of infertility.
(c) Suggest a technique that can help the couple to have a child where the problem is with the male partner.

(a) In India the female partner is often blamed for the couple being childless because our society is a male dominating society so nobody blames the male. Lack of education, awareness is the another reason. People are not aware about scientific reasons for infertility.

Two values that we can promote to check this social evil are:
i. People should be given proper education about all this. They should be made to understand that both the male and the female can have problems. 
ii. They should be made aware of the causes for infertility and the ways how to overcome it.

(b) The reasons responsible for the cause of infertility are -: 
i. Physical
ii. Congenital etc. 

(c) Artificial insemination is a technique that can help the couple to have a child where the problem is with male partner. In this technique, semen collected either from husband or a healthy donor is artificially introduced into vagina or uterus of the female. 

Reproductive and Child Healthcare (RCH) programmes are currently in operation. One of the major tasks of these programmes is to create awareness amongst people about the wide range of reproduction related aspects. As this is important and essential for building a reproductively healthy society.

(a) "Providing sex education in schools in one of the ways to meet this goal." Give four points in support of your opinion regarding this statement.
(b) List any two 'indicators' that indicate a reproductively healthy society.

(a) Providing sex education is one of the best ways to create a reproductively healthy society. Sex education helps in achieving this goal by:

1. Providing proper knowledge to curious adolescents and preventing them from being misguided and preventing them from believing myths about sex-related aspects.

2. Creating awareness about sexually transmitted diseases and ways to prevent them.
3. Providing proper information about reproductive organs and various adolescents and related changes.

4. Proper information about safe and hygienic sexual practices.

(b) Two indicators of a reproductively healthy society are as follows:

1. In a reproductively healthy society, there is no emphasis on the selection of a particular sex. Hence, the ratio of male and female individuals is maintained.

2.The members of the society have physically andf functionally normal reproductive organs and normal emotional and behavioural interactions among them in all sex related aspects.

If implementation of better techniques and new strategies are required to provide more efficient care and assistance to people, then why is there a statutory ban on amniocentesis? Write the use of this technique and give reason to justify.

There is a statutory ban on amniocentesis because it leads to increase in the number of female foeticide.
Amniocentesis is the technique which is used for sex-determination of the foetus based on the chromosomal pattern in the amniotic fluid surrounding the developing embryo. The ban on the technique is a correct measure because many couples tend to abort the baby if they find the baby to be a girl which increases the number of female foeticides. The ban helps to prevent the misuse of the method and keep a check on it.

Name two hormones that are constituents of contraceptive pills. Why do they have high and effective contraceptive value ? Name a commonly prescribed non-steroidal oral pill.

Two hormones that are constituents of contraceptive pills are
i. Progesterone
ii. Estrogen.

They have a high and effective contraceptive value as they inhibit ovulation and implantation as well as after the quality of cervical mucus to prevent / retard entry of sperm and have very few side effects . 

Saheli - is an example of non-steroidal pill.