The social and political situation continued to be unstable on 4 May, 1919, an angry demonstration was held in Beijing to protest against the decisions of the post-war peace conference. Despite being an ally of the victorious side led by Britain.
China did not get back the territories seized from it. The protest became a movement. It galvanised a whole generation to attack tradition and to call for saving China through modern science, democracy and nationalism.
Revolutionaries called for driving out the foreigners, who were controlling the country's resources, to remove inequalities and reduce poverty. They advocated reforms such as the use of simple language in writing, abolishing the practice of foot-binding and the subordination of women, equality in marriage, and economic development to end poverty.
After the republican revolution the country entered a period of turmoil. The Guomindang (the National People's Party) and the CCP emerged as major forces striving to unite the country and bring stability.