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CBSE

Subject

Reading Passage and Comprehension

Multiple Choice Questions

1.  

The spread of education in society is at the foundation of success in countries that are latecomers to development. In the quest for development, primary education is absolutely essential because it creates the base. But higher education is just as important, for it provides the cutting edge. And universities are the lif‟e-blood of higher education. Islands of excellence in professional education. such as Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), are valuable complements but-cannot be substitutes for universities which provide educational opportunities for people at large. There can be no doubt that higher education has made a significant contribution to economic development, social progress and political democracy in independent India. It is a source of dynamism for the economy. It has created social opportunities for people. It has fostered the vibrant democracy in our polity. It has provided a beginning for the creation of a knowledge society. But it would be a mistake to focus on its strengths alone. It has weaknesses that are a cause for serious concern.

There is, in fact, a quiet crisis in higher education in India that runs deep. It is not yet discernible simply because there are pockets of excellence. an enormous reservoir of talented young people and an intense competition in the admissions process. And. in some important spheres. We continue to reap the benefits of what was sown in higher education 50 years ago by the founding fathers of the Republic. The reality is that we have miles to go. The proportion of our population, in the age group 18-24. that enters the world of higher education is around 7 per cent, which is only one-half the average for Asia. The opportunities for higher education, in terms of the number of places in universities. are simply not enough in relation to our needs. What is more, the quality of higher education in most of our universities requires substantial improvement.

It is clear that the system of higher education in India faces serious challenges. It needs a systematic overhaul, so that we can educate much larger numbers without diluting academic standards. This is imperative because the transformation of economy and society in the 21st century would depend, in significant part, on the spread and the quality of education among our people, particularly in the sphere of higher education. It is only an inclusive society that can provide the foundations for a knowledge society.

The challenges that confront higher education in India are clear. It needs a massive expansion of opportunities for higher education. to 1500 universities nationwide, that would enable India to attain a gross enrolment ratio of at least 15 per cent by 2015. It is just as important to raise the average quality of higher education in every sphere. At the same time. it is essential to create institutions that are exemplars of excellence at par with the best in the world. In the pursuit of these objectives, providing people with access to higher education in a socially inclusive manner is imperative. The realisation of these objectives, combined with access, would not only develop the skills and capabilities we need for the economy but would also help transform India into a knowledge economy and society.


According to the passage, the current state of affairs of higher education in India is:


    2.  

    The work which Gandhiji had taken up was not only regarding the achievement of political freedom but also the establishment of a new social order based on truth and non-violence, unity and peace, equality and universal brotherhood and maximum freedom for all. This unfinished part of his experiment was perhaps even more difficult to achieve than the achievement of political freedom. In the political struggle, the fight was against a foreign power and all one could do was either join it or wish it success and give it his/her moral support. In establishing a social order on this pattern, there was a strong possibility of a conflict arising between diverse groups and classes of our own people. Experience shows that man values his possessions even more than his life because in the former he sees the means for perpetuation and survival of his descendants even after his body is reduced to ashes. A new order cannot be established without radically changing the mind and attitude of men towards property and, at some stage or the other, the 'haves' have to yield place to the 'have-nots'. We have seen, in our time, attempts to achieve a kind of egalitarian society and the picture of it after it was achieved. But this was done, by and large, through the use of physical force.
    In the ultimate analysis it is difficult, if not impossible, to say that the instinct to possess has been rooted out or that it will not reappear in an even worse form under a different guise. It may even be that, like a gas kept confined within containers under great pressure, or water held back by a big dam, once the barrier breaks, the reaction will one day sweep back with a violence equal in extent and intensity to what was used to establish and maintain the outward egalitarian form.
    This enforced egalitarianism contains, in its bosom, the seed of its own destruction. The root cause of class conflict is possessiveness or the acquisitive instinct. So long as the ideal that is to be achieved is one of securing the maximum material satisfaction, possessiveness is neither suppressed nor eliminated but grows on what it feeds. Nor does it cease to be possessiveness, whether it is confined to only a few or is shared by many.
    If egalitarianism is to endure, it has to be based not on the possession of the maximum material goods by a few or by all but on voluntary, enlightened renunciation of those goods which cannot be shared by others or can be enjoyed only at the expense of others. This calls for substitution of material values by purely spiritual ones. The paradise of material satisfaction, which is sometimes equated with progress these days, neither spells peace nor progress. Mahatma Gandhi has shown us how the acquisitive instinct inherent in man can be transmuted by the adoption of the ideal of trusteeship by those who 'have' for the benefit of all those who 'have not' so that, instead of leading to exploitation and conflict, it would become a means and incentive for the amelioration and progress of society respectively.

     


    According to the passage, people ultimately overturn a social order -------



      3.  

      Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to the question followed out of the four alternatives.

      I had seen this road many years ago when my parents moved to Mundakotukurussi, our ancestral village. However, in those early years, I hadn't begun exploring the countryside. I stored the unknown road in my head under 'One Day I will'. Ten years ago, when I recovered from a herniated disc, it was to discover that I had a useless left leg. Though I managed to lose the limp, I hated not being able to stride around as I used to. I needed a challenge to tell myself that I wasn't going to buckle to a creature called sciatica. Thus the 'One Day I Will' arrived. "Where does the road by the medical shop lead to?" I asked my parents while visiting them next. "Chalavara," they said. "It's not an easy road to walk on," my father added. "There are too many ups and downs." Chalavara was a superior grade of a village as compared to Mundakotukurussi, with a high school, a fine library, ATMs and several shops. But it also has two approach roads. The one I had chosen was a narrow back road used by the locals and that settled it for me. I needed to know for myself I could walk a road that wasn't going to be easy. And the next day, I would get up and walk that road again.

      What is 'sciatica'?



        4.  

        1. Often, we passionately pursue matters that in the future appear to be contradictory to our real intention or nature; and triumph is followed by remorse or regret. There are numerous examples of such a trend in the annals of history and contemporary life.
        2. Alfred Nobel was the son of Immanuel Nobel, an inventor who experimented extensively with explosives. Alfred too carried out research and experiments with a large range of chemicals; he found new methods to blast rocks for the construction of roads and bridges; he was engaged in the development of technology and different weapons; his life revolved around rockets and cannons and gun powder. The ingenuity of the scientist brought him enough wealth to buy the Bofors armament plant in Sweden.
        3. Paradoxically, Nobel's life was a busy one yet he was lonely; and as he grew older, he began suffering from guilt of having invented the dynamite that was being used for destructive purposes. He set aside a huge part of his wealth to institute Nobel Prizes. Besides honouring men and women for their extraordinary achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine and literature, he wished to honour people who worked for the promotion of peace.
        4. It's strange that the very man whose name was closely connected with explosives and inventions that helped in waging wars willed a large part of his earnings for the people who work for the promotion of peace and the benefit of mankind. The Nobel Peace Prize is intended f or a person who has accomplished the best work for fratern ty among nations, for abolition or reduction of war and for promotion of peace. 5. Another example that comes to one's mind is that of Albert Einstein. In 1939, fearing that the Nazis would win the race to build the world's first atomic bomb, Einstein urged President Franklin D Roosevelt to launch an American programme on nuclear research. The matter was considered and a project called the Manhattan Project was initiated. The project involved intense nuclear research the construction of the world's first atomic bomb. All this while, Einstein had the impression that the bomb would be used to protect the world from the Nazis. But in 1945, when Hiroshima was bombed to end World War II, Einstein was deeply grieved and he regretted his endorsement of the need for nuclear research. 6. He also stated that had he known that the Germans would be unsuccessful in making the atomic bomb, he would have probably never recommended making one. In 1947, Einstein began working for the cause of disarmament. But, Einstein's name still continues to be linked with the bomb. Man's fluctuating thoughts, changing opinions, varying opportunities keep the mind in a state of flux. Hence, the paradox of life: it's certain t hat nothing is certain in life.

         Working with arms and ammunition helped Alfred to amass _______.



          5.  

          A passage is given with question following it. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives.

          My coat's pretty warm, even though it cost £9.99 and came from the flea market. It had a label in it, CHRISTIN BIOR, but I cut it out as soon as I got home. You can't work where I work and have CHRISTIN BIOR in your coat. You could have a genuine vintage Christian Dior label. Or something Japanese. Or maybe no label because you make your clothes yourself out of retro fabrics that you source at Alfies Antiques. But not CHRISTIN BIOR.

          As I get near Catford Bridge, I start to feel a knot of tension. I really don't want to be late today. My boss has started throwing all sorts of hissy fits about people "swanning in at all times," so I left an extra twenty minutes early, in case it was a bad day. I can already see: It's a god-awful day. They've been having a lot of problems on our line recently and keep cancelling trains with no warning. Trouble is, in London rush hour, you can't just cancel trains. What are all the people who were planning to get on that train supposed to do? Evaporate?

          The author would prefer to be seen wearing all of the following types of clothes, except?



            6.  

            Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to the question followed out of the four alternatives.

            I had seen this road many years ago when my parents moved to Mundakotukurussi, our ancestral village. However, in those early years, I hadn't begun exploring the countryside. I stored the unknown road in my head under 'One Day I will'. Ten years ago, when I recovered from a herniated disc, it was to discover that I had a useless left leg. Though I managed to lose the limp, I hated not being able to stride around as I used to. I needed a challenge to tell myself that I wasn't going to buckle to a creature called sciatica. Thus the 'One Day I Will' arrived. "Where does the road by the medical shop lead to?" I asked my parents while visiting them next. "Chalavara," they said. "It's not an easy road to walk on," my father added. "There are too many ups and downs." Chalavara was a superior grade of a village as compared to Mundakotukurussi, with a high school, a fine library, ATMs and several shops. But it also has two approach roads. The one I had chosen was a narrow back road used by the locals and that settled it for me. I needed to know for myself I could walk a road that wasn't going to be easy. And the next day, I would get up and walk that road again.

            What disability did the writer suffer due to the herniated disc?



              7.  

              If religion and community are associated with global violence in the minds of many people, then so are global poverty and inequality. There has, in fact, been an increasing tendency in recent years to justify policies of poverty removal on the ground that this is the surest way to prevent political strife and turmoil. Basing public policy—international as well as domestic—on such an understanding has some evident attractions. Given the public anxiety about wards and disorders in the rich countries in the world, the indirect justification of poverty removal-not for its own sake but for the sake of peace and quiet in the world—provides an argument that appeals to self-interest for helping the needy. It presents an argument for allocating more resources on poverty removal because of its presumed political, rather than moral relevance.
              While the temptation to go in that direction is easy to understand, it is a perilous route to take even for a worthy cause. Part of the difficulty lies in the possibility that if wrong, economic reductionism would not only impair our understanding of theworld, but would also tend to undermine the declared rationale of the public commitment to remove poverty. This is a particularly serious concern, since poverty and massive inequality are terrible enough in themselves, and deserve priority even if there were no connection whatsoever with violence. Just as virtue is its own reward, poverty is at least its own penalty. This is not to deny that poverty and inequality can-and do-have far reaching consequences with conflict and strife, but these connections have to be examined and investigated with appropriate care and empirical scrutiny, rather than being casually invoked with unreasoned rapidity in support of a ‘good cause’. Destitution can, of course, produce provocation for defying established laws and rules. But it need not give people the initiative, courage, and actual ability to do anything very violent. Destitution can be accompanied not only by economic debility, but also by political helplessness. A starving wretch can be too frail and too dejected to fight and battle, and even to protest and holler. It is thus not surprising that often enough intense and widespread suffering and misery have been accompanied by unusual peace and silence. Indeed, many famines have occurred without there being much political rebellion or civil strife or intergroup warfare. For example, the famine years in the 1840s in Ireland were among the most peaceful, and there was title attempt by the hungry masses to intervene even as ship after ship sailed down the river Shannon with rich food. Looking elsewhere, my own childhood memories in Calcutta during the Bengal famine of 1943 include the sight of starving people dying in front of sweetshops with various layers of luscious food displayed behind the glass windows, without a single glass being broken, or law or order being disrupted.

               Which of the following statement is least likely to be inferred from the passage:



                8.  

                The World Trade Organisation (WTO) was created in the early 1990s as a component of
                the Uruguay Round negotiation. However, it could have been negotiated as part of the
                Tokyo Round of the 1970s, since negotiation was an attempt at a ‘constitutional reform’
                of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Or it could have been put off to
                the future, as the US government wanted. What factors led to the creation of the WTO in
                the early 1990s? One factor was the pattern of multilateral bargaining that developed late
                in the Uruguay Round. Like all complex international agreements, the WTO was a
                product of a series of trade-offs between principal actors and groups. For the United
                States, which did not want a new organization, the disputed settlement part of the WTO
                package achieved its longstanding goal of a more effective and more legal dispute
                settlement system. For the Europeans, who by the 1990s had come to view GATT
                dispute settlement less in political terms add more as a regime of legal obligations, the
                WTO package was acceptable as a means to discipline the resort to unilateral measures
                by the United States. Countries like Canada and other middle and smaller trading
                partners were attracted by the expansion of a rule-based system and by the symbolic
                value of a trade organization, both of which inherently support the weak against the
                strong. The developing countries were attracted due to the provisions banning unilateral
                measures. Finally, and perhaps most important, many countries at the Uruguay Round
                came to put a higher priority on the export gains than on the import losses that the
                negotiation would produce, and they came to associate the WTO and a rule-based
                system with those gains. This reasoning – replicated in many countries – was contained
                in U. S. Ambassador Kantor’s defence of the WTO, and it announced to a recognition
                that international trade and its benefits cannot be enjoyed unless trading nations accept
                the discipline of a negotiated rule-based environment. A second factor in the creation of
                the WTO was pressure from lawyers and the legal process. The dispute settlement
                system of the WTO was seen as a victory of legalists but the matter went deeper than
                that. The GATT, and the WTO, are contract organizations based on rules, and it is
                inevitable that an organization creating a further rule will in turn be influenced by legal
                process. Robert Hudee has written of the ‘momentum of legal development’, but what is
                this precisely? Legal development can be defined as promotion of the technical legal
                values of consistency, clarity (or certainty) and effectiveness; these are values that those
                responsible for administering any legal system will seek to maximize. As it played out in
                the WTO, consistency meant integrating under one roof the whole lot of separate
                agreements signed under GATT auspices; clarity meant removing ambiguities about the
                powers of contracting parties to make certain decisions or to undertake waivers; and
                effectiveness meant eliminating exceptions arising out of grandfather-rights and
                resolving defects in dispute settlement procedures and institutional provisions. Concern
                for these values is inherent in any rule-based system of co-operation, since without these
                value rules would be meaningless in the first place, therefore, create their own incentive
                for fulfilment. The moment of legal development has occurred in other institutions
                besides the GATT, most notably in the European Union (EU). Over the past two decades
                the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has consistently rendered decisions that have
                expanded incrementally the EU’s internal market, in which the doctrine of ‘mutual
                recognition’ handed down in Cassis de Dijon case in 1979 was a key turning point. The
                court is now widely recognized as a major player in European integration, even though
                arguably such a strong role was not originally envisaged in the Treaty of Rome, which
                initiated the current European Union. One means the Court used to expand integration
                was the ‘teleological method of interpretation’, whereby the actions of member states
                were evaluated against ‘the accomplishment of the most elementary goals set forth in the
                Preamble to the (Rome) treaty. The teleological method represents an effort to keep
                current policies consistent with slated goals, and it is analogous to the effort in GATT to
                keep contracting party trade practices consistent with slated rules. In both cases legal
                concerns and procedures are an independent force for further co-operation.
                In the large part the WTO was an exercise in consolidation. In the context of a trade
                negotiation that created a near-revolutionary expansion of international trade rules, the
                formation of the WTO was a deeply conservative act needed to ensure that the benefits
                of the new rules would not be lost. The WTO was all about institutional structure and
                dispute settlement: these are the concerns of conservatives and not revolutionaries, that
                is why lawyers and legalists took the lead on these issues. The WTO codified the GATT
                institutional practice that had developed by custom over three decades, and it
                incorporated a new dispute settlement system that was necessary to keep both old and
                new rules from becoming a sham. Both the international structure and the dispute
                settlement system were necessary to preserve and enhance the integrity of the
                multilateral trade regime that had been built incrementally from the 1940s to the 1990s.

                In the method of interpretation of the European Court of Justice:



                  9.  

                  A passage is given with the question following it. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to the question followed out of the four alternatives.

                  The instructor's rules were simple. Breathe through your mouth, not your nose; else the mask will fog up. Easier said than done; I got it wrong many a time. But once you fought habit and got the hang of it, the panoramic underwater world revealed itself to you with high-definition clarity.

                  Led by him, I slowly peered through the mask into what till then was crystal-clear water, shimmering in the sunlight. I saw pebbles, send and my fluid shadow. I was in Nemo's Universe. Sea cucumbers, sea anemone, clown fish, star fish, sea horses, parrot fish, butterfly fish and a bevy of colourful salt water fish swam past. A shoal of canary-yellow fish did a merry dance and another with vibrant blue fish followed it. They were oblivious to the snorkelers who struggled to take in the sight of the world so beautiful, so colourful, and resist opening their mouth, beautiful in amazement; the tube would fall off!

                  The writer is describing her experience of which activity?



                    10.  

                    Correct the spelling



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