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Which of the following amino acids are present in ornithine cycle

  • Valine and cystine

  • Arginine and citrulline

  • Glycine and methionine

  • None of these


Arginine and citrulline

Ornithine cycle takes place in liver. The amino acid arginine and citrulline are formed during this cycle. Therefore it is referred as ornithine, arginine cycle and also Kreb-Henseleit cycle. The products of this cycle are urea and ornithine. The substances excreted through this cycle are CO2 and NH2


Haemodialysis helps in patient having

  • uremia

  • anaemia

  • diabetes

  • goitre



Haemodialysis helps the patient suffering from uremia. In this condition, the excretory products (i.e., urea) go on accumulating in blood. This happens due to kidney, failure. In haemodialysis, the patients blood is passed through disposable dialyser and is then returned to body by the intravenous route.


ADH controls water permeability of

  • collecting tube

  • proximal convoluted tubules

  • distal convoluted tubules

  • all of the above


distal convoluted tubules

The vasopressin hormone, secreted by neurohypophysis of pituitary gland promotes the reabsorption of water from the distal convoluted tubules of nephrons, reducing excretion of water in urine (diuresis). Hence, it is called Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH). Its release in blood is controlled by an 'osmoregulatory centre' located in hypothalamus. Hyposecretion of ADH causes diabetes incipidus.


The ornithine cycle removes two waste products from the blood in liver. These products are

  • CO2 and urea

  • ammonia and urea

  • CO2 and ammonia

  • ammonia and uric acid


CO2 and ammonia

During ornithine cycle in liver cell, ammonia and CO2 are combined to form urea which is released into the blood.


Which of the following are uricotelic animals?

  • Rohu and frog

  • Camel and frog

  • Lizard and crow

  • Earthworm and eagle


Lizard and crow

Uricotelic animals are those animals which excrete uric acid as their excretory product, for e.g. lizard and crow. They conserve water in their bodies and synthesize crystals of uric acids from ammonia. These crystals can be retained in the body (in solid form) for a longer time before being discharged from the body.


A person passes much urine and drinks much water but his blood glucose level is normal. This condition may be the result of:

  • a reduction in insulin secretion from pancreas

  • a reduction in vasopressin secretion from posterior pituitary

  • a fall in the glucose concentration in urine

  • an increase in secretion of glucagon


a reduction in vasopressin secretion from posterior pituitary

Vasopressin or ADH secreted from posterior pituitary stimulates reabsorption of water by the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting renal tubules and thus regulates urine volume. It has no such important effect on glucose metabolism. Therefore, a person whose blood glucose level is normal, but passes much urine and drinks much water has a reduction in vasopressin secretion which ultimately leads to diabetes insipidus.


Assertion : Phenylketonuria is a disease in which excretion of phenylalanine occurs in urine. 

Reason : It is due to dietary imbalance.

  • If both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explantion of Assertion

  • If both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion

  • If Assertion is true but Reason is false

  • If Assertion is false but Reason is true


If Assertion is true but Reason is false

Phenlyketonuria is a genetic disorder in which there is disordered metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine, leading to severe mental retardation of affected children. The disease is caused by the  absence or deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which results in the accumulation of phenylalanine in all body fluids. There are also high levels of the ketone phenylpyruvate in the urine.


Glomerular filtrate is

  • blood minus blood corpuscles and plasma protein

  • blood minus corpuscles

  • mixture of water, ammonia and corpuscles

  • urine


blood minus blood corpuscles and plasma protein

The glomerular filtrate contains a large amount of water and other dissolved substances such as urea, uric acid, creatinine, amino acids, glucose, sodium, potassium, vitamins etc. Both glomerular filterate and blood plasma are similar except former does not consists of proteins.


In living beings ammonia is converted into urea through

  • ornithine cycle

  • citrulline cycle

  • fumarine cycle

  • arginine cycle


ornithine cycle

Ornithine combines with one molecule of NH3 and CO2 to produce citrulline. Citrulline combines with another molecule of NH3 to form arginine. Arginine is broken down into urea and ornithine which repeats the cycle.


X- rays are used in 

  • ECG

  • EEG

  • CT- scan

  • Endoscopy


CT- scan

X-rays are used in CT-scan (computed tomographic scanning). It uses X-rays but employs a computer for reconstructing the image instead of directly recording it on a photographic film. This technique is used in the diagnosis of diseases of brain, spinal cord, chest, etc. It is also useful in detecting tumors.

ECG or Electrocardiogram is a medical test that detects cardiac (heart) abnormalities by measuring the electrical activity generated by the heart as it contracts.

EEg or Electroencephalogram is a non- invasive test that records electrical patterns in your brain. It is used to help diagnose conditions such as seizures, epilepsy, head injuries, dizziness etc.

Endoscopy helps in identifying inflammation, ulcers and tumors. It is more accurate than X- rays for detecting abnormal growths such as cancer and for examining the inside of the upper digestive system.