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 Multiple Choice QuestionsMultiple Choice Questions

61.

The hormone responsible for 'Fight and Flight' response is

  • adrenalin

  • thyroxin

  • ADH

  • oxytocin


A.

adrenalin

Adrenalin is a natural stimulant made in the adrenal gland of the kidney. Its biological name is epinephrine. Adrenalin is carried in the blood stream and affects the autonomous nervous system, which control functions such as, the heart rate, dialation of the pupils and secretion of sweat and saliva. Adrenalin is the body's activator and is released in response to anxiety.


62.

Assertion : Pantothenic acid deficiency is probably the most common vitamin deficiency.

Reason : Macrocytic anaemia is a characteristic feature of pantothenic acid deficiency.

  • If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion

  • If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.

  • If assertion is true but reason is false.

  • If both assertion and reason are false


D.

If both assertion and reason are false

Vitamin B6 or Pantothenic acid is known as chick anti- dermatitis factor or filtrate factor. It is a water soluble vitamin which is required for metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. It is mainly found in egg, cereals, legumes, meat etc. Folic acid deficiency is the most common vitamin deficiency.

Macrocytic anaemia is mainly associated with megaloblastic changes in bone marrow and is a characterisitc feature of folate deficiency.


63.

Which of the following is the function of adrenalin?

  • Helps in gastric juice secretion

  • Increases heart rate and blood pressure

  • Increases blood calcium

  • Helps in milk secretion


B.

Increases heart rate and blood pressure

Adrenalin is a natural stimulant made in the adrenal gland of the kidney. Its biological name is epinephrine. It is carried in the blood stream and affects the autonomous nervous system. It control the functions such as, the heart rate, dilation of the pupil, secretion of sweat and saliva, altering body's metabolism etc.


64.

Assertion : Insulin is antagonistic to glucagon.

Reason : It is an anabolic hormone.

  • If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.

  • If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.

  • If assertion is true but reason is false.

  • If both assertion and reason are false.


A.

If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.

Glucagon stimulates the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose. It is also called an anti-insulin hormone.

Insulin is antagonistic to glucagon. It converts glucose into glycogen in the liver and muscles. It promotes protein synthesis in tissue from amino acids. Insulin reduces catabolism of proteins. It is an anabolic hormone. It increase the synthesis of fat in the adipose tissue from fatty acids. Insulin reduces the breakdown and oxidation of fat.


65.

Which of the following is correct?

  • Paneth cells secrete pepsinogen

  • Parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid

  • Argentaffin cells secrete mucus

  • Chief cells secrete gastrin


B.

Parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid

Parietal cells are present in the epithelium of the gastric glands. They are large and are present on the side walls of the glands. They are also called oxyntic cells as they stain strongly with eosin. They secrete hydrochloric acid and Castle intrinsic factor.


66.

What is the effect of GnRH produced by hypothalamus?

  • Stimulates the synthesis and secretion of androgens

  • Stimulates secretion of milk in mammary glands

  • Stimulates foetal ejection reflex

  • Stimulates synthesis of carbohydrates from non- carbohydrates in liver


A.

Stimulates the synthesis and secretion of androgens

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) is a releasing hormone. It stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to secrete two gonadotropic hormones- FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) and LH (Luteinising Hormone). 

In males, LH stimulates testosterone production from the interstitial cells of the testes (leydig cells). FSH stimulates testicular growth and enhances the production of an androgen- binding protein by the Sertoli cells, which are a component of the testicular tubule necessary for sustaining the maturing sperm cells.

In females, FSH stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles in the ovary before the release of an egg from one follicle at ovulation. It also increases oestradiol production. LH triggers ovulation and development of the corpus luteum.


67.

Follicle Stimulating Hormone is secreted by

  • anterior lobe of pituitary

  • hypothalamus

  • gonads

  • poterior lobe of pituitary


A.

anterior lobe of pituitary

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein secreted from anterior lobe of pituitary. It is secreted in both males and females. In males, it stimulates spermatogenesis and development of seminiferous tubules and in females, it stimulates formation and growth of ovarian follicle in ovary. 


68.

Assertion : Adrenaline is called an emergency hormone.

Reason : It acts on the cells of skeletal, cardiac, smooth muscles, blood vessels and fat cells

  • If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.

  • If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.

  • If assertion is true but reason is false.

  • If both assertion and reason are false


B.

If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.

Adrenaline (epinephrine) is a hormone produced by the medulla of the adrenal gland. It increases the heart activity, improves the power and prolongs the action of muscles. It also increases the rate and depth of breathing to prepare the body for fright, fight, or flight. It is secreted at the time of emergency. Hence it is also called emergency hormone.


69.

Islets of Langerhans are found as

  • anterior pituitary

  • kidney cortex

  • spleen

  • endocrine pancreas


D.

endocrine pancreas

The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine, ie, hormone producing cells. It was discovered by Paul Langerhans. They consist of 1 to 2% of the pancreas volume and receive 10- 15% of its blood flow. These are irregularly shaped patches of endocrine tissue located within the pancreas of most vertebrates.


70.

Endemic goitre is a state of

  • increased thyroid function

  • normal thyroid function

  • decreased thyroid function

  • moderate thyroid function


A.

increased thyroid function

The most common type of goitre is endemic goitre, caused by iodine deficiency. Iodine is an essential nutrient that is required for the production of thyroid hormone. When iodine intake is low, thyroid hormone production is low, and in response the pituitary gland secretes greater quantities of the hormone thyrotropin or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). This excess thyrotropin stimulates not only thyroid hormone production but also thyroid growth.