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 Multiple Choice QuestionsMultiple Choice Questions


Product of sexual reproduction generally generates

  • longer viability of seeds

  • prolonged dormancy

  • new genetic combination leading to variation

  • large biomass


new genetic combination leading to variation

Sexual reproduction leads to new genetic combination leading to variation in new products. Longer viability of seeds, prolonged dormancy and large biomass are not related to sexual reproduction.


Monoecious plant of Chara shows occurrence of 

  • antheridiophore and archengoniophore on the same point

  • stamen and carpel on the same plant

  • upper antheridium and lower oogonium on the same plant

  • upper oogonium and lower antheridium on the same plant


upper oogonium and lower antheridium on the same plant

Monoecious or homothallic, a condition in Chara (green algae) is used to denote upper oogonium and lower antheridium on the same plant. The organisms, which possess both the reproductive organs are bisexual. Unisexual condition represents both male or female organs in the same organism.



Parthenogenesis is a term of

  • Budding

  • Asexual reproduction

  • Sexual reproduction

  • Regeneration


Sexual reproduction

Parthenogenesis is a form of sexual reproduction n which the ovum develops into a new individual without fertilisation.


Multiplication of genetically identical copies of a cultiver by asexual reproduction is known as

  • aclonal propagation

  • clonal propagation

  • vegetative propagation

  • polyclonal propagation


clonal propagation

Clonal propagation is the process of vegetative propagation in which clones are multiplied by culture techniques. Vegetative propagation is the culture process in which callus is grown and differentiated.


The component of bacteria that retains the crystal violet stain during Gram staining is

  • O- antigen

  • lipopolysaccharide

  • peptidoglycan

  • cytoplasmic membrane



Gram staining is the method of differentiating bacterial species into two large groups, i.e., Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria based on the physical properties of their cell walls.

In the process of Gram staining 

- alcohol is used for decolourlisation process. It solubilises lipid but does not solubilise peptidoglycan layer.

As Gram positive bacteria has less lipid percentage as compared to peptidoglycan. Thus, peptidoglycan which does not get solubilised retain the Gram stain and Gram negative bacteria which has thinner peptidoglycan layer cannot retain the Gram stain.


Hydra is

  • herbivorous

  • more developed

  • carnivorous

  • omnivorous



Hydra are carnivorous and feed mainly on small crustaceans like water fleas (Daphnia) and small worms.


Which is the most common mechanism of genetic variation in the population of sexually reproducing organism?

  • Transduction

  • Chromosomal aberrations

  • Genetic drift

  • Recombination



Recombination is the most common mechanism of genetic variation in the population of a sexually reproducing organism. It involves the exchange of genetic material either between multiple chromosomes or between different regions of the same chromosome. This mechanism is generally mediated by homologous chromosomes, during meiosis, i.e, formation of gametes or germ cells. 



Gametes formation in animals is found in

  • ovaries

  • gonads

  • gall bladder

  • testes



Gametogenesis is the process of forming gametes from diploid cells of the germ line. In animals, it takes place in gonads.


Which of the following processes was discovered by Lederberg and Tatum (1946)?

  • Transduction

  • Transformation

  • Asexual reproduction

  • Conjugation



Bacterial conjugation is the phenomenon of transfer of genetic material between the bacterial cells with the help of conjugation bridge (tube) or cell to cell contact. This process was firstly discovered by Joshua Lederberg and Edward Tatum in 1946. During conjugation the donor cell provides a conjugative or mobilisable genetic element to the recipient cell.


In vitro clonal propagation in plants is characterised by

  • PCR and RAPD

  • Northern blotting

  • Electrophoresis and HPLC

  • Microscopy



RAPD stand for Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. It is a type of PCR reaction, but the segments of DNA that are amplified are random. Often, PCR is used to amplify a known DNA sequence.