Subject

Sociology

Class

CBSE Class 12

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Sample Papers

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 Multiple Choice QuestionsShort Answer Type

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1.

What are some of the problems faced by the mine workers?


  1. Workers in underground mines face very dangerous conditions, due to flooding, fire, the collapse of roofs and sides, the emission of gases and ventilation failures.
  2. Many workers develop breathing problems and diseases like tuberculosis and  silicosis.
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2.

What is meant by the phrase 'invisible hand'?


According to the Adam Smith, 'Invisible hand' is an unseen force at work that converts what is good for each individual into what is good for society.

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3.

What is meant by cultural diversity?


Cultural diversity is a group of diverse individuals from different cultures or societies. Usually, cultural diversity takes into account language, religion, race, sexual orientation, gender, age and ethnicity.

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4.

Read the following passage and answer the questions below:
                      DOUBTS OVER LADLI EFFECT IN TONY AREAS
New Delhi: In a first, 2008 saw more girls than boys being born in the capital. “ It is a little illogical to assume that Ladli has curbed female foeticide in those classes too,"
 said a senior official commenting on the adverse sex ratio in tony colonies.
“The way we are interpreting the figure is simply that there is an increase in the registration of births of girls.”
In order to qualify for the Ladli scheme, a family’s annual income has to be less than Rs 1 lakh a year, Ironically, the 2001 census clearly showed that the sex ratio is worst in middle class and upper middle class localities, including Punjabi Bagh, Greater Kailash and Malviya Nagar.
Under Ladli scheme, every girl child is entitled to Rs. 6000/5000 at the time of birth, depending on whether the baby was delivered in a government hospital or elsewhere.
Then onwards, the government deposits Rs. 5000 each at the time of admission to classes I, VI, IX, X and XII. The money is kept as a long- term fixed deposit in the name of the child who can encash it when she turns 18.
                                                                      (The Times of India, 15-08-09)
Define sex ratio. What is meant by an 'adverse' or falling sex ratio in this context?


Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males in a given area during a specified period of time.
Adverse sex ratio refers to a decline in sex ratio, or a fall in the number of women relative to men.

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5.

What is 'commodification'? Explain with examples.


Commodification:

  1. Commodification occurs when things that were earlier not traded in the market
    become commodities. For instance, labour or skills become things that can be bought and sold. 
  2. According to Marx and other critics of capitalism, the process of commodification has negative social effects. For example: commodification of labour.
  3. In earlier times, human beings themselves were bought and sold as slaves, but today it is considered immoral to treat people as commodities.
  4. Traditionally, marriages were arranged by families, but now there are professional marriage bureaus and websites that help people to find brides and grooms for a fee.

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6.

What are some of the issues taken up by civil society organizations today?


Civil society is the non-state and non-market part of the public domain in which individuals get together voluntarily to create institutions and organisations.

  1. Activities of civil society organisations have an wider range, it covers advocacy and lobbying activity with national and international agencies as well as active participation in various moments.
  2. The issues taken up are: tribal struggles for land rights, devolution in urban governance, campaigns against rape and violence against women, rehabilitation of those displaced by dams and other developmental projects, fishermen’s struggles against mechanised fishing, rehabilitation of hawkers and pavement dwellers, campaigns against slum demolitions and for housing rights, primary education reform, distribution of land to Dalits, etc.
  3. Civil liberties organisations have been particularly important in keeping a watch on the state and forcing it to obey the law.

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7.

In what ways can changes in social structure lead to changes in family structure?


  1. According to social structure, a family can be male headed or female-headed; migration of men in search of work can increase the number of female headed households.
  2. After independence, the rapid processes of industrialisations and urbanisation have changed the structure of the extended families to nuclear families.
  3. The long work schedules of young parents may lead to increasing number of grand parents moving in as care givers for young grand children.
  4. The changes in the family structure may occur accidentally as when a war takes place or people migrate in search of work. Sometimes the changes in the family structure are purposely brought about.
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8.

Mention any two changes that caste underwent during the colonial rule.


  1. The most important official effort to collect information and data on Caste was through the census. The census became a regular ten-yearly exercise from 1881 onwards.
  2. The new land revenue settlements and other related arrangements and laws served to provide legal recognised to customary rights of the upper castes.
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9.

Define the term assimilation.


Assimilation is a process of cultural unification and homogenisation by which newly entering or subordinate groups lose their distinctive culture and adopt the culture of the dominant majority. It may be forced or voluntary.

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10.

Read the following passage and answer the questions below:

DOUBTS OVER LADLI EFFECT IN TONY AREAS

New Delhi: In a first, 2008 saw more girls than boys being born in the capital. 'It is a little illogical to assume that Ladli has curbed female foeticide in those classes too', said a senior official commenting on the adverse sex ratio in tony colonies, 'The way we are interpreting the figure is simply that there is an increase in the registration of births of girls.'

In order to qualify for the Ladli scheme, a family's annual income has to be less than Rs 1 lakh a year, Ironically, the 2001 census clearly showed that the sex ratio is worst in the middle class and upper middle-class localities, including Punjabi Bagh, Greater Kailash and Malviya Nagar. Under Ladli scheme, every girl child is entitled to Rs. 6000/5000 at the time of birth, depending on whether the baby was delivered in a government hospital or elsewhere.

Then onwards, the government deposits Rs. 5000 each at the time of admission to classes I, VI, IX, X and XII. The money is kept as a long- term fixed deposit in the name of the child who can encash it when she turns 18. (The Times of India, 15-08-09)

Do you feel that schemes like the Ladli scheme will help to solve the problem of the adverse child sex ratio? Give reason for your answer.


(i) The schemes like the Ladli Scheme will certainly help you to solve the problem of the adverse child sex ratio.
(ii) Under the Ladli scheme every girl child is entitled to Rs. 6000/5000 at the time of birth, depending on whether the baby was delivered in a government hospital or elsewhere. The Delhi government deposits Rs. 5000 each at the time of admission to classes, I, VI, IX, X and XII. The money is kept as a long-term fixed deposit in the name of the child who can encash it when she turns 18.

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