Subject

Sociology

Class

CBSE Class 12

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Sample Papers

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 Multiple Choice QuestionsShort Answer Type

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1.

What does social exclusion refer to?


Social exclusion refers to ways in which individuals may become cut off from full involvement in the wider society. It focuses attention on a broad range of factors that prevent individuals or groups from having opportunities open to the majority of the population.

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2.

Read the following passage and answer the questions below:
Surprise! Punjab, Bengal lead in curbing birth rate silently, and without much sarkari fanfare, dramatic changes are taking place in the population indicators of some states that you won't see reflected in country level data. Crude birth rate dipped from 26.4 to 22.8 for the whole country between 1998 and 2008. That's a 14% decline. But in eight major states, the decline was much more. In Punjab, the birth rate fell by a whopping 23%, followed by Kerala and Maharashtra (both 20%) and West Bengal (18%).
Countrywide, the crude death rate, came down by 18% in a decade. Again there were surprises in the toppers' list. Both Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan saw a 23% dip in death rates, closely followed by Bihar (22%) and U.P. (20%).
These astonishing figures are computed from the annual Sample Registration System survey done by the Government's Census office for the years 1998 and 2008, the latest available, covering a sample of 7.1 million people spread across the country.
There has been a significant decline in the infant mortality rate in India from 72 in 1998 to 53 in 2008. Although the figure is still shocking, at least there has been a decline of 26% over the past decade.

What is crude birth rate and natural growth rate of population?


The crude birth rate is a rough average for an entire population and does not take account of the difference across age-groups.
Natural growth rate of population refers to the difference between the birth rate and the death rate.

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3.

Read the following passage and answer the questions below:
Surprise! Punjab, Bengal lead in curbing birth rate silently, and without much sarkari fanfare, dramatic changes are taking place in the population indicators of some states that you won't see reflected in country level data. Crude birth rate dipped from 26.4 to 22.8 for the whole country between 1998 and 2008. That's a 14% decline. But in eight major states, the decline was much more. In Punjab, the birth rate fell by a whopping 23%, followed by Kerala and Maharashtra (both 20%) and West Bengal (18%).
Countrywide, the crude death rate, came down by 18% in a decade. Again there were surprises in the toppers' list. Both Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan saw a 23% dip in death rates, closely followed by Bihar (22%) and U.P. (20%).
These astonishing figures are computed from the annual Sample Registration System survey done by the Government's Census office for the years 1998 and 2008, the latest available, covering a sample of 7.1 million people spread across the country.
There has been a significant decline in the infant mortality rate in India from 72 in 1998 to 53 in 2008. Although the figure is still shocking, at least there has been a decline of 26% over the past decade.

Name the states with maximum amount of decline in birth rate and in death rate. What does the fall in death rate and birth rate indicate?


Names of states with maximum amount of decline in birth rate.
(a) Punjab,  (b) Kerala,   (c)  Maharashtra,     (d) West Bengal.
Name of states with maximum amount of decline in death rate.
(a) Madhya Pradesh,  (b) Rajasthan    (c) Bihar   (d) U.P.

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4.

Who wrote 'Street Purush Tulana'? What does it explain?


It is often assumed that social reform for women’s rights was entirely fought for by male reformers and that ideas of women’s equality are alien imports. But we got to know that all these assumptions were wrong when we read this book 'Stree Purush Tulana' (or Comparison of Men and Women) which was written by a Maharashtrian housewife, Tarabai Shinde. This book highlights the double standards of a male-dominated society. The book explains how a young Brahmin widow was sentenced to death by the courts for killing her newborn baby who was illegitimate however, no effort was made to identify or punish the man who had fathered the baby. This book created quite a stir when it was published.

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5.

Highlight the features of Ascriptive Identity.


Features of Ascriptive Identity: 

  1. They are determined by the accidents of birth and do not involve any choice on the part of the individuals concerned.
  2. It is an odd fact of social life that people feel a deep sense of security and satisfaction in belonging to communities in which their membership is entirely accidental.

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6.

What is meant by communalism in the Indian context? Why has it been a recurrent source of tension and violence?


  1. Communalism refers to aggressive Chauvinism based on religious identity.
  2. Chauvinism itself is an attitude that sees one’s own group as the only legitimate or worthy group, on the other hand, other groups are seen as inferior,  illegitimate and opposed.
  3. In other words, we can say that 'Communalism' is an aggressive political ideology linked to religion.
  4. Communalism has also been a recurrent source of tension and violence. During communal riots, people become faceless members of their respective communities. They are willing to kill, rape, and loot members of other communities in order to redeem their pride, to protect their home turf. Example-anti Sikh riots of Delhi in 1984, anti-Muslim violence in Gujarat in 2002.

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7.

Mention two factors that encourage regionalism.


  1. Language mixed with regional and tribal identity and not religion has, therefore, made the most powerful instrument for the making of ethno-national identity of India.
  2. Sometimes, ethnicity based on tribal identity, language, regional deprivation and ecology gave the basis of intense regionalism resulting into statehood.
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8.

What is a proprietary caste group?


A proprietary caste group own most of the resources and can command labour to work for them in most parts of the country.

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9.

What is 'Jajmani System'?


The 'Jajmani System' can be defined as the non-market exchange of produce, goods and services within the (north) Indian villages, without the use of money, based on the caste system and customary practices.

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10.

Highlight the role of Colonialism in the emergence of new business communities, with the help of any one example.


1. The advent of colonialism in India produced major upheavals in the economy, causing disruptions in production, trade, and agriculture but still at the same time new groups (especially the Europeans) entered into trade and business, sometimes in alliance with existing merchant communities and in some cases by forcing them out.
2. Rather than completely overturning existing economic institutions, the expansion of the market economy in India provided new opportunities to some merchant communities, which were able to improve their position by re-orienting themselves to changing economic circumstances.
3. In some cases, new communities emerged to take advantage of the economic opportunities provided by colonialism and continued to hold economic power even after Independence.
4. A good example of this process is provided by the Marwaris, They became a successful business community only during the colonial period when they took advantage of new opportunities in colonial cities. 

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