CBSE Class 12

Pre Boards

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Sample Papers

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 Multiple Choice QuestionsShort Answer Type


Could the RTI be a means of forcing the state to respond to the people of India? Elaborate.

The RTI ACT 2005 is a law enacted by the Parliament of India. This Act gives Indians (except those in the state of J&K who have their own special law) access to Government records.
Under the terms of RTI Act, any person may request information from 'a public authority' (a body of Government or instrumentality of state) which is expected to reply as soon as possible or within 30 days.

The Act also requires every public authority to computerize their records for wide dissemination and to proactively publish certain categories of information so that the citizens need minimum recourse to request for information formally.

The Right to Information Act specifies that citizens have a right to inspect documents, works & records on public issues.


What does the term modernity assume?

Modernity Involves:

  1. Local ties and parochial perspective give way to universal commitments and cosmopolitan attitudes.
  2. Behaviour, thought, attitude is not decided by family, tribe, caste, community etc.
  3. Occupation/work based on choice not birth.
  4. Scientific & rational approach / attitude prevails over emotion.
  5. Positive and desirable values – humanitarian, egalitarian etc.


What do you mean by the term 'Beggar'?

'Beggar' means free labour. This practice was prevalent in several parts of northern India. Under this practice members of low ranked caste groups had to provide labour for a fixed number of days per year to the village zamindar or landlord.



State any two Constitutional provision meant to protect minority rights.

Article 29

1) Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a
distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same.

Article 30

1) All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice. 




Mention any two adverse impact of Liberalisation.

The two adverse impacts of liberalisation:

  1. Some sectors like automobiles, electronics did not benefit from the policy of liberalization as they cannot compete with foreign products.

  2. Indian farmers now exposed to competition from farmers in other countries, because import of agricultural products is allowed.





Who are the privileged minorities?

Privileged minorities such as extremely wealthy people are not usually referred to as minorities; if they are, the term is qualified in some way, as in the phrase ‘privileged minority’. When minority is used without qualification, it generally implies a relatively small but also disadvantaged group.



In what ways formal demography is different from social demography?

Formal demography is primarily concerned with the measurement and analysis of the components of population change. Its focus is on quantitative analysis for which it has a highly developed mathematical methodology suitable for forecasting population growth and changes in the composition of the population. Social demography, on the other hand, enquires into the wider causes and consequences of population structures and change.



Trade and Commerce operated through Caste and Kinship networks in India. Discuss.

  1. Pre-colonial India had well-organised manufacturing centres as well as indigenous merchant groups, trading networks, and banking systems that enabled trade to take place within India, and between India and the rest of the world.
  2. ‘Vaisyas’ constitute one of the four varnas – an indication of the importance of the merchant and of trade or business in Indian society since ancient times.

  3. The ‘traditional business communities’ in India include not only ‘Vaisyas’, but also other
    groups with distinctive religious or other community identities.

  4. Trade took place primarily within the caste and kinship networks of these communities, a
    merchant in one part of the country could issue a hundi that would be honoured
    by a merchant in another place.



Explain the regional variations of low child sex ratio in India.

  1. Regional variations of low child sex ratio can be seen in India. It is important to note that the lowest child sex ratio are found in India. It is important to note that the lowest child sex ratios exist in the most prosperous regions of the country.
  2. Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, Gujarat and Maharashtra are among the richest
    states of India in terms of per capita incomes. However, all these states with the lowest
    child sex ratios.

  3. The problem of selective abortions is not due to poverty or ignorance or shortage of resources.
  4. It is also possible that as economically prosperous families decide to have fewer children – often only one or two now – they may also wish to choose the sex of their child.



Explain Commodification as feature of capitalism.

The term 'Commodification' can be described as:

  1. Commodification occurs when things that were earlier not traded in the market become commodities.
  2. According to Marx and other critics of capitalism, the process of commodification has negative social effects.

  3. But in modern society, almost everyone accepts the idea that a person’s labour can be bought, or that other services or skills can be provided in exchange for money.

  4. Under commodification labour or skills become things that can be bought and sold.