CBSE Class 12

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Sample Papers

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 Multiple Choice QuestionsShort Answer Type


Give examples of INGOs.

International non-governmental organization (INGOs) can be founded by private philanthropy.For example Greenpeace, The Red Cross,  Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and etc.



Nation-State became the dominant political form during the colonial period. Explain.

  1. Colonialism establishment ofrule by one country over another. The British colonialism was based on a capitalist system.
  2. Prior to the First World War passports were not widely used for international travel, and in most areas, few people had one.
  3. Nation-state pertains to a specific type of state, characteristic of the modern world.
  4. A government has the sovereign power within a defined territorial area, and the people are citizens of a single nation. However, nation-states are closely associated with the rise of nationalism.


Explain the politics of assimilation and integration used to establish a national identity.

Assimilation: Assimilation is a process of cultural unification and homogenisation by which newly entering or subordinate groups lose their distinctive culture and adopt the culture of the dominant majority. Assimilation can be forced or voluntary.
For example: Seizure of lands forests and fisheries from minority groups and indigenous people and declaring them national resources.

Intergration: Integration is a process of cultural unification whereby cultural distinctions are relegated to the private domain and a common public culture is adopted for all groups. This usually involves the adoption of the dominant culture as the official culture.
For example: Adoption of state symbols celebrating the dominant groups history, heroes and culture reflected in such things as choice of national holidays or naming of streets etc.



In an industrial set-up, how can a manager make the worker produce more?

There are two ways of making workers produce more:

  1. To adopting new techniques and advanced technologies.
  2. To extend the working hours.
  3. To increase the amount i.e produced within a given time period.


Read the passage given below and answer the following question:

Data from the National Sample Survey studies of 1999-2000 and from the 2001 Census of India reveal a sharp fall in the rate of employment generation (creation of new jobs) across both rural and urban areas. This is true for the young as well. The rate of growth of employment in the 15-30 age group, which stood at around 2.4 percent a year between 1987 and 1994 for both rural and urban men, fell to 0.7 for rural men and 0.3 percent for urban men during 1994 to 2004. This suggests that the advantage offered by a young labour force is not being exploited.

Strategies exist to exploit the demographic window of opportunity that India has today. But India’s recent experience suggests that market forces by themselves do not ensure that such strategies would be implemented. Unless a way forward is found, we may miss out on the potential benefits that the country’s changing age structure temporarily offers.

a) What is the demographic dividend?
b) Do you think that India is indeed facing a window of opportunity created by demographic dividend?

a) Demographic dividend –
It is a benefit flowing from the changing age structure - caused by a larger proportion of “workers” relative to “ non- workers ( dependants) “ ( 15 yrs to 64 yrs).

b) Yes, India is indeed facing a window of opportunity created by demographic dividend but India's market does not ensure such strategies. India is supposed to be benefitting from 'demographic dividend' as it -
-reduced birth rate,
-reduced the infant mortality rate,
-reduced crude death rate etc.

But, these strategies would be implemented when potential efforts made to achieve goals.



What is the role and significance of civil society in todays world?

Civil society is much broader than the domain of state and market. It is beyond the private domain of the family. It is public domain in which institutions and organisations are created voluntarily. It is the sphere of active citizenship, in which individuals take up social issues, try to influence the state or make a demand on it, pursue their collective interests or seek support for a variety of causes. Institutions like political parties, media, trade unions, NGOs, religious movements, etc. are the entities formed in civil society.

Relevance of civil society

  1. Civil society through its voluntary organisations can interfere in the state functions where it is deemed that the state is turning into an authoritarian.
  2. As civil society is beyond the control of state and market, it has sufficient power to prevent all that is not good in the common interest of people.
  3. As civil society is not a purely commercial profit-making entity, it highlights the corruption, criminalisation and discrimination practised on part of the government or any other group of people. Eg. private TV channels, trade unions are civil societies.
  4. During emergency of 1977, it was a civil society with its various institutions like media, trade union, pressure groups etc. who launched movements pertaining to the environment, human right against forced sterilization and Dalit movements
  5. Campaign for the right to information is the most recent act of cultural society. It began with an agitation in rural Rajasthan and soon ft became nationwide agitation. The government had to pass the new law namely, the Right To Information Act, 2005.


What do you understand by the term westernization?

  1. The term' westernization'  refers to the adoption of western culture, traditions and customs.   Indian people started adopting western thoughts and culture during the British rule.
  2. Westernization has also influenced political ideas and thinking. For example, Nationalism and democracy emerged as two great ideas in the west. They came to India through westernisation.


Explain the three key principles of social stratification with examples.

Key principles of social stratification :

  1. Social Stratification is a characteristic of society, not simply a functions of individual differences.
  2. Social stratification remains over generations. Persons social position is ascribed. It means children assume the social position of their parents. The ascribed part of social inequality is reinforced by the practice of endogamy.
  3. social stratification is supported by the patterns of belief, or ideology. In this sense, no system of social stratification is likely to remain over generations unless it is generally understood as being either fair or necessary.


Differentiate the sociological and economic perspective of the market.

Difference between sociological and economic perspective on markets:

(i)    The economic approach is aimed at understanding and explaining how markets work in modern capitalist economies while the sociological approach is based on the phenomenon of adherence of interests of society or all people to the looking after the judicious way of an individual interest. Father of economics viz. Adam Smith himself has called this phenomenon or force as 'invisible hand'. He has argued that society overall benefits when individuals pursue their own self-interest in the market because it stimulates the economy and creates more wealth. Thus, sociological perspective observed markets as a social institution.

(ii)    Economic perspective assumes economies/economy as a separate part of society because it has its own laws to guide. However, sociologists have attempted to develop an alternative way of studying economic institutions and processes within the larger social framework.

(iii) Economic prospects do a study on individual buyers and sellers and support economic philosophy or laissez-faire (i.e. noninterference of government in private enterprises) or free market while sociologists view markets specific cultural formation of social institutions. According to them, markets are often controlled by particular social groups or classes and they have specific connections to other institutions, social processes and structures. They say economies composing markets are socially embedded.



Encouraging cultural diversity is good policy from both the practical and the principled point of view. Justify the statement using India’s case as a Nation-State.

Encouraging cultural diversity – ( using case of India as a Nation-state)

  1. The Indian Nation-state is socially and culturally one of the most diverse countries of the world.
  2. It has one of the largest populations speaking multiple languages (dialects).
  3. It consists of multiple religions, plural in beliefs and practices.
  4. In terms of Nation-state’s relationship with community identities, the Indian case fits neither the “assimilationist“nor the “integrationist” model.
  5. The Constitution declares the State to be a secular state, but religion, language and other such factors are not banished from the public sphere.
  6. By international standards, very strong constitutional protection is offered to minority religions.
  7. India’s problems have been more in the sphere of implementation and practice rather than Laws or principles.