How did liberalisation policy have an impact on the Indian markets?
(i) The process of liberalisation includes a range of politics such as the privatisation of public sector enterprises, loosening of government regulations on capital, labour and trade.
(ii) Due to liberalisation reduction in tariff and import duties was made. Now foreign goods can be imported easily.
(iii) The policy of liberalisation is mainly responsible for the globalisation of the Indian economy. This process began in the late 1980s.
(iv) The process of liberalisation and marketisation have stimulated economic growth e.g. branded goods are now available in the markets.
How are the privileged minorities politically vulnerable?
(i) In democratic politics, it is always possible to convert a numerical majority into political power through elections.
(ii) The dominant majority uses the state machinery to suppress the religious or cultural institutions of the minorities; forcing them to abandon their distinctive identity.
How can Secularism be understood in its two forms?
In what ways does change in social structure lead to changes in the family structure?
(I) The changes in social structure certainly lead to the changes in the family structure. The social economic political and cultural changes reflect their impact on family structure.
(II) After independence, the rapid process of industrialisations and urbanisation have changed the structure of the extended families to nuclear families.
(III) The urban atmosphere does not accept the concept of joint families. The constraints of urbanisation are in favour of nuclear families.
(IV) The changes in the family structure may occur accidentally as when a war takes place or people migrate in search of work. Sometimes the changes in the family structure are purposely brought about.
Mention the factors responsible for the decline in the child sex ratio in India.
Factors responsible for the decline in sex ratio in India:
(i) Sex specific abortion - foeticide.
(ii) Female infanticide.
(iii) Preference for male child
(iv) Severe neglect of infants -girls.
The family planning programme suffered during the period of National Emergency. Give reasons.
Reasons for the setback of the Family planning programme during Emergency:
(i) Introduction of a coercive programme of mass sterilization.
(ii) A vast number of mostly poor and powerless people were forcibly sterilized. Sterilization refers to medical procedures like a vasectomy for men and tubectomy for women which prevent conception and childbirth.
(iii) There was massive pressure on lower level government officials( school teachers or office workers) to bring people for sterilization in the family planning camps; that were organized specially for this purpose.
(iv) However, There was widespread popular opposition to the programme. Ultimately, this programme was abandoned by the new government elected after the Emergency.
Read the passage given below and answer the following questions:
Kumar embodies the spirit of the dalits of Gohana. In his early 30s, he is not the scavenger the caste society ordered him to be, but a senior assistant in an insurance company. Most dalits have embraced education and stepped across the line of control of the caste system.
“There are many of us who have a Masters Degree and work in private and government jobs. Most of our boys go to school and so do the girl,” he said. […] The young men of the Valmiki colony are not the stereotyped, submissive, suffering Dalits that one would traditionally expect to encounter. Dressed in imitation Nike shoes and Wrangler jeans, their Body language is defiant. However, the journey of upward social mobility remains tough for the vast majority of landless Dalits in Haryana. “most boys drop out after high school because of acute poverty,” said SudeshKataria, an assistant engineer working for a multinational company.. He has a diploma in electrical engineering from the industrial training institute, Gurgaon. Kataria’s best friend at ITI, a jat, once invited him to a family wedding but insisted that he shouldn’t reveal his identity. “At the wedding a guest asked me about my caste and I lied. Then he asked me about my village and I told him the truth. He knew my village was a dalit village.” A fight broke out between the hosts and the guests how can they let a dalit in? “They washed the chair I sat on and threw me out,” Kataria recalls.
Katarina wants a new life for the Dalits- he campaigns throughout the village of Gurgaon with other educated Dalits. “Our people will rise, stronger and powerful. We need to unite. And once we unite and fight back, there will be no Gohanas or Jhajjars. Not anymore.”
The term 'Dalits' literally means downtrodden, poor and oppressed persons. It refers to those who have been broken, ground down by those above them in a deliberate way.
Who are tribals?
A social group consisting of collection of families and lineages based on shared ties of
kinship, ethnicity, and common history of territorial – political organization.
What changes have taken place due to marketization?
Changes due to marketization:
(i) Removal of economic controls (deregulations)
(ii) Privatization of industries
(iii) Removing of government control over wages and prices
(iv) Lead to better economic growth
Do you think that the linguistic recognition of States has helped or harmed India? Explain.
Linguistic recognition of States helped rather than harmed India:
(i) It was felt that State based on language might hasten further a sub-division of India. However, far from undermining the Indian unity, linguistic states have helped strengthed it.
(ii) It was taken to be perfectly consistent to be a Kannadigo and Indian Bengali and Indian, Tamil and India, Gujarati and India.
(iii) These States based on language, sometimes quarrel with each other; while these disputes are not petty, they could infact have been far worse.
(iv) If the aspirations of the Indian language communities had been ignored, we might have got one language, 14 or 15 nations.