‘‘The Salt March of 1930 was the first event that brought Mahatma Gandhi to world attention.’’ Explain the significance of this movement for Swaraj. from History Class 12 CBSE Year 2015 Free Solved Previous Year Papers

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# CBSE History 2015 Exam Questions

11.

‘‘British element is gone but they have left the mischief behind’’

Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel said :

It is no use saying that we ask for separate electorates, because it is good for us. We have heard it long enough. We have heard it for years, and as a result of this agitation we are now a separate nation ... Can you show me one free country where there are separate electorates ? If so, I shall be prepared to accept it. But in this unfortunate country if this separate electorate is going to be persisted in, even after the division of the country, woe betide the country; it is not worth living in. Therefore, I say, it is not for my good alone, it is for your own good that I say it, forget the past. One day, we may be united ... The British element is gone, but they have left the mischief behind. We do not want to perpetuate that mischief. (Hear, hear). When the British introduced this element they had not expected that they will have to go so soon. They wanted it for their easy administration. That is all right. But they have left the legacy behind. Are we to get out of it or not ? CAD, VOL.V

(17.1)Why are separate electorates considered as a mischief ?

(17.2)State the arguments given by Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel for building political unity and forging a nation.

(17.3)How did the philosophy of separate electorates result in a separate nation ?

(17.1)Separate electorate was considered as a mischief as:

(i)It was a poison that had entered the body politics of our country.

(ii)It was a measure deliberately introduced by the British to divide the people.

(17.2)The arguments for building political unity and forging a nation were:

(I)In order to build political unity and forge a nation every individual must be moulded as a citizen

(ii)Each group had to be assimilated within the nation.

(iii)Communities could be recognised as cultural entities and assured cultural rights.

(17.3) It turned one community against another, divided the nation, caused bloodshed and led to the tragic partition of the country.

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12.

‘‘The architecture in colonial Bombay represented ideas of imperial power, nationalism and religious glory.’’ Support the statement with examples.

‘‘The architecture in colonial Bombay represented ideas of imperial power, nationalism and religious glory.’’ The reasons:

(i)As Bombay’s economy grew, from the mid 19th century the British developed new administrative structures. Many new buildings were constructed in European style to reflect the culture and confidence of the rulers. To symbolise their superiority, authority and power European would also mark out a difference between colonial masters and their Indian subjects.

(ii)For public buildings three broad architectural styles were used. Two of these were direct imports from fashions prevalent in England. The first was Neo-classical which characteristics included construction of geometrical structures fronted with lofty pillars.

(iii)It was derived from a style that was in ancient Rome. The British considered particularly appropriate for the British Empire in India. eg : The Town Hall in Bombay built in 1833 , Elphinstone Circle subsequently named Horniman Circle which was inspired from models in Italy . It made innovative use of covered arcades to shield shoppers and pedestrians from sun and rain of Bombay.

(iv)Another style that was extensively used was the Neo Gothic, characterised by high pitched roofs , pointed arches and detail decoration.

(v)The Gothic style had its roots in buildings , especially churches built in North Europe during medieval period.

(vi)The Neo Gothic style was revived in mid -19th century in England. The most spectacular example of this style is Victoria Terminus, the station and headquarters of the Greeat Indian Penninsular Railway Company.

(vii)Towards the beginning of the twentieth century a new hybrid architectural style developed which combined the Indian with the European and was called Indo –Saracenic . Europeans used Saracen term to designate Muslim and Indo was Shorthand for Hindu. The inspiration for this style medieval buildings in India with their domes , chhatris , jalis and arches. Example of Indo-Saracenic is Gateway of India and Taj Mahal Hotel.

(viii)By integrating India and European styles in public architecture the British wanted to prove that they were legitimate rulers of India . Architecture reflects the aesthetic ideals prevalent at a time, and variations within those ideals.

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13.

(18.1) On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols :

(a) Dholavira

(b) Agra – the capital city of Mughals

(18.2) On the same outline map of India, three centres related to the Revolt of 1857 have been marked as A, B and C. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them.

Note : The following questions are for Visually Impaired Candidates only in lieu of Q. No. 18 :

(18.1) Mention any two capital cities of the Mughal Empire.

(18.2) Mention any three important places related with the Revolt of 1857.

(18.1) On the given political outline map of India (on Page 11), locate and label the following with appropriate symbols :

(a) Dholavira

(b) Agra – the capital city of Mughals

(18.2) On the same outline map of India, three centres related to the Revolt of 1857 have been marked as A, B and C. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them.

Note : The following questions are for Visually Impaired Candidates only in lieu of Q. No. 18 :

(18.1) Mention any two capital cities of the Mughal Empire.

(18.2) Mention any three important places related with the Revolt of 1857.

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14.

Describe the life of forest dwellers in the Mughal era.

The life of forest dwellers in the Mughal era:

(i)Forest dwellers were termed jangli in contemporary texts. Being jangli , however did not mean an absence of civilization . The term described those whose livelihood came from gathering forest produce , hunting and shifting agriculture.

(ii)These activities were largely season specific that perpetuated mobility which was a distinctive feature of tribes inhabiting these forests.

(iii)For the state, the forest was a  subversive place-a place of refuge for troublemakers.

(iv)External forces entered the forest in different ways . The state required elephants for the army so the peshkash levied from forest people often included a supply of elephants.

(v)The hunt symbolized the overwhelming concern of the state to ensure justice to all its subjects, rich and poor. The hunt was a subject frequently painted by courts artists.

(vi)The spread of commercial agriculture was an important external factor that impinged on the life of those who lived in forests.

(vii)Forest products-like honey , beeswax and gum lac- were in great demand and became major items of overseas export from India.

(viii)Elephants were captured and sold. Trade involved exchange through barter system as well. Some tribes, like the Lohanis in Punjab were involved in overland trade between India and Afghanishtan, and in the town-country trade in Punjab itself.

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15.

‘‘The Salt March of 1930 was the first event that brought Mahatma Gandhi to world attention.’’ Explain the significance of this movement for Swaraj.

The significance Salt March for Swaraj:

(i) On 12th March 1930- Gandhiji began the march from his ashram at Sabarmati towards the ocean where he reached after three weeks, making a fistful of salt and thereby breaking colonial salt law.

(ii) Parallel salt marches and protests were also conducted in other parts of the country. Peasants breached the hated colonial forest laws, factory workers went on strike, lawyers boycotted British courts  and students refused to attend goverment run educational institutions. Gandhi’s call had encouraged Indians of all classes to make manifest their own discontent with colonial rule.

(iii) During the March Gandhiji told the upper castes that if they want Swaraj they must serve untouchables. For Swaraj, Hindus , Muslims , Parsis and Sikhs have to unite

(iv) The progress of the salt March can also be traced from another source: the American news magazine, Time. Time magazine was deeply sceptical of the salt march reaching its destination. But within a week it had changed its mind and saluted Gandhi as a ‘saint ‘ and statesman. Time’s writing had made the British rulers “ desperately anxious”.

(v) Salt March was notable for at least three reasons. First, it was  this event that brought Gandhiji to world attention. The march was widely covered by the European and American Press.

(vi) Second, it was the first nationalist activity in which women participated in large numbers. Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay, the socialist activist had persuaded Gandhiji not to restrict the protest to men alone . She herself was one of numerous women who courted arrest by breaking salt and Liquor Laws.

(vii) Third, and perhaps most significant, it was the Salt March which forced upon the British the realization that their Raj would not last forever , and they would have to devolve some power to the Indians.

(viii) To that end British Government convened a series of Round Table Conferences in London. First meeting was held in Nov 1930 without any pre-eminent political leader in India, thus rendering it an exercise in futility. When Gandhiji was released from jail in Jan 1931,many meetings were held with the Viceroy and it culminated in the ‘Gandhi Irwin Pact’ by which civil disobedience would be called off and all prisoners released and salt manufacture allowed along the coast. Gandhiji represented the congress at Second Round Table Conference at London. The conference in London was inconclusive, so Gandhi returned to India and resumed civil disobedience.

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16.

How did Sutta-Pitaka reconstruct the philosophy of Buddhism ? Mention about Buddhist Tipitaka.

Sutta Pitaka reconstructed the philosophy of Buddhism as:

(i)Buddha’s teachings have been reconstructed from stories found mainly in the Sutta Pitaka. These stories describe his miraculous powers other suggest that the Buddha tried to convince people through reasons and persuation rather than display of supernatural power.

(ii)The world is transient and constantly changing ; it is also soulless as there is nothing permanent.

(iii)Sorrow is intrinsic to human existence. It is by following the path of moderation between severe penance and self-indulgence that human beings can rise above these worldly troubles.

(iv)In the earliest form of Buddhism existence of god was irrelevant. Buddha regarded the social world as the creation of humans rather than of divine origin. Therefore, he advised kings to be humane and ethical. Individual effort was expected to transform social relations.

(v)The Buddha emphasized individual agency and righteous action as a means to escape from the cycle of rebirth and attain self-realisation and nibbana.The extinguishing of the ego and desire would thus end the cycle of suffering.

Buddhist Tipitakas:

It means three baskets which hold three types of texts. They were first transmitted orally and then written and classified according to the subject matter.

(i)The Vinaya Pitaka included rules and regulations for those who joined the sangha or monastic order.

(ii)The Sutta Pitaka which contains the teachings of Buddha

(iii)The Abhidhamma Pitaka dealt with philosophical matters.

1991 Views

17.

The child sati

This is perhaps one of the most poignant descriptions by Bernier :

At Lahore, I saw a most beautiful young widow sacrificed, who could not, I think, have been more than twelve years of age. The poor little creature appeared more dead than alive when she approached the dreadful pit: the agony of her mind cannot be described; she trembled and wept bitterly; but three or four of the Brahmanas, assisted by an old woman who held her under the arm, forced the unwilling victim toward the fatal spot, seated her on the wood, tied her hands and feet, lest she should run away, and in that situation the innocent creature was burnt alive. I found it difficult to repress my feelings and to prevent their bursting forth into clamorous and unavailing rage ...

(16.1) Why did Bernier consider this treatment as a crucial marker of the difference between western and eastern societies ?

(16.2) What role did the Indian patriarchal society play towards this social evil ?

(16.3) Compare the condition of the women of the era mentioned above to that of today.

(16.1) Bernier considered this treatment as a crucial marker of difference between western and eastern society because-

(i)Women received education in the west but in the eastern society there was no education and many social evils like sati , purdah system and child marriages existed.

(ii)Eastern societies were male dominated unlike the western

(16.2) While some women seemed to embrace death cheerfully, others were forced to die.

(16.3) In medieval era women had no rights but today sati , slavery has been prohibited. There is women empowerment with economic and political rights.

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18.

‘‘Proper’’ social roles

Here is a story from the Adi Parvan of the Mahabharata :

Once Drona, a Brahmana who taught archery to the Kuru princes, was approached by Ekalavya, a forest-dwelling nishada (a hunting community). When Drona, who knew the dharma, refused to have him as his pupil, Ekalavya returned to the forest, prepared an image of Drona out of clay, and treating it as his teacher, began to practise on his own. In due course, he acquired great skill in archery. One day, the Kuru princes went hunting and their dog, wandering in the woods, came upon Ekalavya. When the dog smelt the dark nishada wrapped in black deer skin, his body caked with dirt, it began to bark. Annoyed, Ekalavya shot seven arrows into its mouth. When the dog returned to the Pandavas, they were amazed at this superb display of archery. They tracked down Ekalavya, who introduced himself as a pupil of Drona.

Drona had once told his favourite student Arjuna, that he would be unrivalled amongst his pupils. Arjuna now reminded Drona about this. Drona approached Ekalavya, who immediately acknowledged and honoured him as his teacher. When Drona demanded his right thumb as his fee, Ekalavya unhesitatingly cut it off and offered it. But thereafter, when he shot with his remaining fingers, he was no longer as fast as he had been before. Thus, Drona kept his word : no one was better than Arjuna.

(15.1) Why did Drona refuse to have Ekalavya as his pupil ?

(15.2) How did Ekalavya react to the demand of his Guru ?

(15.3) Mention two versions of Guru-Shishya Parampara mentioned in the given extract.

(15.1) Guru Drona refused to have Ekalavya as his pupil because Drona was a Brahmana and knew his dharma while Ekalavya was a forest dweller and belonged to nishada (a hunting community).

(15.2)Ekalavya immediately acknowledged Drona’s demand and honoured him as his teacher.

(15.3)Two versions of Guru –Shishya Parampara:

(a)Drona kept his word of making his favourite student Arjuna  as unrivalled amongst his pupils.

(b)Ekalavya unhesitatingly had cut off his right thumb when Drona demanded it.

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