Physics

CBSE Class 12

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21.

A monochromatic light of wavelength 500 nm is incident normally on a single slit of width 0.2 mm to produce a diffraction pattern. Find the angular width of the central maximum obtained on the screen.

Estimate the number of fringes obtained in Young's double slit experiment with fringe width 0.5 mm, which can be accommodated within the region of the total angular spread of the central maximum due to the single slit.

Angular width of central maximum

Linear width of central maxima in the diffraction pattern

Let ‘n’ be the number of interference fringes which can be accommodated in the central maxima

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22.

A radioactive nucleus 'A' undergoes a series of decays as given below:

The mass number and atomic number of A_{2} are 176 and 71 respectively. Determine the mass and atomic number of A_{4} and A.

The mass number and atomic number of A_{4} is 172 and 69, respectively.

The mass number and atomic number of A is 180 and 74, respectively.

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23.

Define the term 'amplitude modulation'. Explain any two factors which justify the need for modulating a low-frequency base band signal.

It is the process of superposition of information/message signal over a carrier wave in such a way that the amplitude of carrier wave is varied according to the information signal/message signal.

Direct transmission, of the low frequency base band information signal, is not possible due to the following reasons;

(i) Size of Antenna: For transmitting a signal, minimum height of the antenna should be λ/4; with the help of modulation wavelength of signal decreases, hence the height of antenna becomes manageable.

(ii) Effective power radiated by an antenna: Effective power radiated by an antenna varies inversely as λ^{2}, hence effective power radiated into the space, by the antenna, increases.

(iii)To avoid mixing up of signals from different transmitters.

1926 Views

24.

The work function of the following metals is given : Na 2.75 ev, K = 2.3 eV, Mo = 4.17 eV and Ni = 5.15 eV. Which of these metals will not cause photoelectric emission for radiation of wavelength 3300 Å from a laser source placed 1 m away from these metals? What happens if the laser source is brought nearer and placed 50 cm away?

The work function of Mo and Ni is more than the energy of the incident

photons; so photoelectric emission will not take place from these metals.

Kinetic energy of photo electrons will not change, only photoelectric current

will change.

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25.

A narrow beam of unpolarized light of intensity I0 is incident on a Polaroid P_{1}. The light transmitted by it is then incident on a second polaroid P_{2} with its pass axis making the angle of 60° relatives to the pass axis of P1. Find the intensity of the light transmitted by P_{2}.

According to Malus’ Law:

1726 Views

26.

For a CE-transistor amplifier, the audio signal voltage across the collector resistance of 2 kΩ is 2 V. Given the current amplification factor of the transistor is 100, find the input signal voltage and base current, if the base resistance is 1 kΩ.

Given, R_{c} = 2000Ω

R_{B} = 1000 Ω,

β = 100,

voltage gain can given as,

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27.

Write the basic nuclear process underlying β^{+} and β^{-} decays.

Basic process underlying β+ and β- decay are

During a weak interaction an atomic nucleus converts into a nucleus with one higher atomic number while emitting one electron and an electron antineutrino this is called beta minus decay.

During a weak interaction an atomic nucleus converts into a nucleus with one Lower atomic number while emitting one electron and an electron neutrino this is called beta minus decay.

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28.

Mrs Rashmi Singh broke her reading glasses. When she went to the shopkeeper to order new specs, he suggested that she should get spectacles with plastic lenses instead of glass lenses. On getting the new spectacles, she found that the new ones were thicker than the earlier ones. She asked this question to the shopkeeper but he could not offer a satisfactory explanation for this. At home, Mrs Singh raised the same question to her daughter Anuja who explained why plastic lenses were thicker.

(a) Write two qualities displayed each by Anuja and her mother.

(b) How do you explain this fact using lens maker's formula?

(a) Two qualities displayed each by Anuja and her mother:

Anuja has good knowledge of lens and she is very co-operative.

Mrs Rashmi is curious to know about lenses and science behind it.

(b)The lens maker formula is given as

where f is the focal length, μ is the refractive index and R1 and R2 is the radius of curvature of the lens.

Since μ_{g}>μ_{p}

where g stands for glass and p stands for plastic

Therefore, we get (μ-1)> (μ_{p}-1)

Now, using the lens maker formula, we see that focal length is inversely proportioned to (μ-1)

Hence, f_{p}>f_{g}

Thus, in the case of the plastic lens, the thickness of the lens should be increased to keep the same focal length as that of the glass lens to give the same power.

2137 Views

29.

How does one explain the emission of electrons from a photosensitive surface with the help of Einstein's photoelectric equation?

Einstein’s Photoelectric equation is

When a photon of energy is incident on the metal, some part of this

energy is utilized as work function to eject the electron and remaining

energy appears as the kinetic energy of the emitted electron.

6871 Views

30.

Explain two features to distinguish between the interference pattern in Young's double slit experiment with the diffraction pattern obtained due to a single slit.

Interference pattern | Diffraction pattern |

1) All fringes are of equal width. | 1) The width of central maxima is twice the width of higher order band. |

2) Intensity of all bright bands is equal. | 2) The intensity goes on decreasing for a higher order of diffraction bands. |

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