Subject

Biology

Class

NEET Class 12

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 Multiple Choice QuestionsMultiple Choice Questions

1.

Which one of the following pairs of the kind of cells and their secretion is correctly matched

  •  

    Oxyntic cells  a secretion with pH between 2.0 and 3.0
  • Alpha cells of islets of Langerhans secretion that decreases blood sugar level
  • Kupffer cells a digestive enzyme that hydrolyses nucleic acids
  • Sebaceous glands a secretion that evaporates for cooling

D.

Sebaceous glands a secretion that evaporates for cooling

Oxyntic (or parietal) cell is present in the wall of the stomach that produce HCI which forms the part of gastric juice. Oxyntic cell also produce intrinsic factor which is involved in the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine. The pH of gastric acid is 2-3 in the stomach of the lumen. The acidity being maintained by the proton pump, a H+/ K+ ATPase.

Alpha cell ofislets of langerhans secrete glucagon hormone which raises blood glucose level by stimulating liver to convert glycogen to glucose and by stimulating the conservation of fatty acids and amino acids to glucose.

Kupffer cells arc specialized macrophages that disposes of old blood cells and particulate matter. Kupffer cells, named after Karl Wilhem Von Kupffer, are found in the bloodstreams and in the liver, attached to the walls of the sinusoids.

Sebaceous gland is a simple or branched glands in the skin that secrete an oily substance, sebum which is fatty mildly antiseptic material that protects, lubricates, and waterproofs the skin and hair and help prevent dessication.


2.

Examine the diagram of the two cell types A and B given below and select the correct option

     A                B

  • Cell A is the rod cell found evenly all over retina

  • Cell A is the cone cell more concentrated in the fovea central is

  • Cell B is concerned with colour vision in bright light

  • Cell A is sensitive to low light intensities


A.

Cell A is the rod cell found evenly all over retina

The retina contains two types of photoreceptors, rods and cones. The rods are more numerous, some 120 million, and are more sensitive than the cones. However, they are not sensitive to color. The 6 to 7 million cones provide the eye's color sensitivity and they are much more concentrated in the central yellow spot known as the macula. In the center of that region is the " fovea centralis", a 0.3 mm diameter rod-free area with very thin, densely packed cones.


3.

The figure given below shows three velocity substrate concentration curves for an enzyme reaction. What do the curves a, b, and c depict respectively

  • a-normal enzyme reaction,
    b-competitive inhibition,
    c-non-competitive inhibition.

  • a-enzyme with an allosteric modulator added,
    b-normal enzyme activity,
    c-competitive inhibition

  • a-enzyme with an allosteric stimulator,
    b-competitive inhibition added
    c-normal enzyme reaction

  • a-normal enzyme reaction,
    b-non-competitive inhibitor added
    c-allosteric inhibitor added


A.

a-normal enzyme reaction,
b-competitive inhibition,
c-non-competitive inhibition.

Enzymes or biocatalysts are proteinaceous substance that are capable of catalysing chemical reactions of biological systems without themselves undergoing any change. In the graph a shows normal enzyme reaction, graph h shows competitive inhibition and graph c shows non competitive inhibition. In competitive inhibition the inhibitor, which is a substrate analogue, combines reversibly to the free enzyme at the active site. In non competitive inhibition, the inhibitor binds to enzyme at a place other than substrate binding site. It results in destruction of enzyme activity


4.

Given below is a table comparing the effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
for four feature (a-d). Which one feature is correctly described

  • Feature Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system
    a) Salivary glands  Stimulate Secretion Inhibit Secretion
  • b) Pupil of the eye Dilate Constricts
  • c) Heart rate  Decreases  Increases
  • d) Intestinal peristalsis Stimulates  Inhibits


B.

b) Pupil of the eye Dilate Constricts

Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system are the parts of autonomic nervous system. Autonomic nervous system is a part of peripheral  nervous system that supplies stimulation via motor nerves to the smooth and to cardiac muscles (the involuntary muscles) and to the glands of the body. The activity of the ANS is controlled principally by the medulla oblongata and hypothalamus of brain. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system tend to work antagonistically on the same organ.

Feature Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system

a) Salivary glands

b) Pupil of the eye

c) Heart rate 

d) Intestinal peristalsis

 Inhibit Secretion

Dilate

Increases

Inhibits

Stimulate Secretion

Decreases

Increases

Stimulates


5.

The type of epithelial cells which line the inner surface of Fallopian tubes, bronchioles and small bronchi are known as

  • squamous epithelium

  • columnar epithelium

  • ciliated epithelium

  • cubical epithelium


C.

ciliated epithelium

Ciliated epithelium is a region of epithelium consisting of columnar or cuboidal cells bearing hairlike appendages called cilia, that are capable of beating rapidly. Ciliated epithelium performs the functions of moving particles of fluids over the epithelial surface.

Cubical ciliated epithelium occurs in certain parts of uriniferous tubules whereas columnar ciliated epithelium occurs in fallopian tubules, nasal passages, bronchioles, small bronchi and buccopharyngeal cavity of frog. It often occurs in the vicinity of mucus secreting goblet cells. Squamous epithelium are found in !inning of alveoli in the lungs and Bowman's capsule in the kidney. Columnar epithelium are found in the lining.


6.

A cricket player is fast chasing a ball in the field. Which one of the following groups of bones are directly contributing in this movement

  • Femur, malleus, tibia, metatarsals

  • Pelvis, ulna, patella, tarsals

  • Sternum, femur, tibia, fibula

  • Tarsals, femur, metatarsals, tibia


D.

Tarsals, femur, metatarsals, tibia

Tarsal- Tarsal, any of several short, angular bones that in humans make up the ankle and that—in animals that walk on their toes (e.g., dogs, cats) or on hoofs—are contained in the hock, lifted off the ground. The tarsals correspond to the carpal bones of the upper limb. 

Femur- Femur, also called thighbone, or hind leg. The head forms a ball and socket with the hip (at the acetabulum), being held in place by a ligament (ligamentum teres femoris) within the socket and by strong surrounding ligaments. 

Metatarsals- Anatomical terms of bone. The metatarsal bones, or metatarsus are a group of five long bones in the foot, located between the tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the toes

Tibia- The tibia, also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertiberates (the other being the fibula, behind and to the outside of the tibia), and it connects the knee with the ankle bones.


7.

A person who shows unpredictable moods, outbursts of emotion, quarrelsome behaviour and conflicts with others is suffering from

  • borderline personality disorder (BPD)

  • mood disorder

  • addictive disorder 

  • schizophrenia.


A.

borderline personality disorder (BPD)

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious mental illness. Borderline describing, a personality disorder characterized by unstable and intense relationships, exploiting and manipulating other people, rapidly changing moods, recurrent suicidal or self injuring acts & a prevasive inner feelings of emptiness and boredom.

A mood disorder is a condition where the prevailing emotional moods is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances. Addiction is a state of dependence produced by the habitual taking of drugs, alcohol, etc.

Schizophrenia is a group of severe mental disorders characterized by disturbances of languages and communications, thought disturbances that may involve distortion ofreality, misperceptions, delusions and hallucination, mood changes and withdrawl etc.


8.

A lizard-like member of reptilia is sitting on a tree with its tail coiled around a twig. This animal could be

  • Hemidactylus showing sexual dimorphism

  • Varamus showing mimicry

  • garden lizard (Calotes) showing camouflage

  • Chamaeleon showing protective colouration


D.

Chamaeleon showing protective colouration

Chamaeleon (or girgit) is a lizard like member of reptilia which is famous for changing its colour according to its surroundings. The phenomenon is called metachrosis. Chamaeleon lives on trees in south India and is insectivorous and can catch an insects about 20 cm away by eversible tongue. Its tails is long cylindrical and prehensile (means able to grasp or grab by wrapping around).


9.

All mammals without any exception are characterised by

  • viviparity and biconcave red blood cells 

  • extra-abdominal testes and a four chambered heart

  • heterodont teeth and 12 pairs of cranial nerves

  • a muscular diaphragm and milk producing
    glands.


D.

a muscular diaphragm and milk producing
glands.

All mammals without any exception are characterized by a muscular diaphragm and milk producing glands.


10.

Which one of the following animals is correctly matched with its one characteristic and the taxon

  • Animal  Characteristic  Taxon
    Millipede  Ventral nerve cord  Arachnida
  • Duckbill platypus  Oviparous  Mammalia
  • Silverfish  Pectoral and pelvic fin  Chordata
  • Sea anemone  Triploblastic  Cnidaria

B.

Duckbill platypus  Oviparous  Mammalia

Millipede: Millipedes belongs to Phylum Arthropoda. Millipedes arc called thousand leggers because of possession of numerous legs. Inspite of this they move very slowly.

Duckbill platypus: It is an egg laying mammal of Phylum Chordata and Class Mammalia. 

Silverfish : Lepisma saccharina is commonly known as silver fish because of its glistening silvery white fish like body. It belongs to the insect Order Thysanura.

Sea anemone : Sea anemone (Admasia), belongs to Phylum Cnidaria shows commensalism. It is found attached to the empty shell of gastropods occupied by hermit crab. Its body wall is two layered i.e.. outer epidermis and inner gastrodermis. In between these two layers is present mesogloea.