What was the major change that occurred in the political and constitutional scenario due to French Revolution in Europe?


How was the maritime silk route useful for Vietnam? 

Maritime Silk Route linked Europe and Asia. It opened up Hanoi to the ports in Egypt extending to the Red Sea. This route laid Chinese cultural influence on Vietnam, bringing about greater cultural intermingling. 


Explain any four ideas of Liberal Nationalists in the economic sphere.


Explain any four ways in which teachers and students organised resistance against the French in Vietnam.

The four ideas of liberal nationalists in the economic sphere were-

(i) Liberal nationalists stood for freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.

(ii)They formed the Custom Union or Zolleverin in Prussia in 1834, joined by most of the German states, advancing the cause for a unified economic territory.

(iii)The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.

(iv)They stood for the creation of a network of railways which improved mobility harnessing economic interest to national unification.


The ways in which teachers and students organised resistance against the French in Vietnam were -

(i) Vietnamese teachers quietly modified the text and criticised what was started.

(ii) The students protested in the Saigon Native girls school when a Vietnamese girl was discriminated against the French students.

(iii) Students fought against the government’s efforts to prevent the Vietnamese from qualifying for white-collar jobs.

(iv) Students formed various political parties, such as the Party of Young Annan, and published nationalist journals such as the Annamese Student.


How did culture play an important role in creating the idea of the ‘nation’ in Europe? Explain with examples.


How were Vietnamese nationalists inspired by Japan and China to set up a democratic republic? Explain with examples.

Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the “nation” in Europe in the following ways.

(i) Romanticism, a cultural movement, sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists criticised the glorification of reason and Science and focused instead

on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. Their effort was to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.

(ii) Collection and recording forms of folk culture was essential to the project of nation-building. Karol Kurpinski, for example, celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.

(iii) Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.


(i) Early Vietnamese nationalists had a close relationship with Japan and China. They provided models for those looking for change, a refuge for those who were trying to escape the French police, and a location where a wider Asian network of revolutionaries could be established. In 1907-08, some 300 Vietnamese students went to Japan to acquire modern education. They appealed to the Japanese as fellow Asians and later established a branch of the Restoration Society in Tokyo.

(ii) Developments in China also inspired Vietnamese nationalists. In 1911, the long established monarchy in China was overthrown by a popular movement under Sun Yat-Sen, and a Republic was set up. Inspired by these developments, Vietnamese students established the Association for the Restoration of Vietnam (Viet-Nam Quang Phuc Hoi).


Who hosted 'Vienna Congress' in 1815? Analyse the main changes brought by the 'Vienna Treaty?  


Analyse the role of 'Hoa-Hao' movement to arouse anti-imperialist sentiments in Vietnam. 

The Congress of Vienna was held in 1815.It was chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich. It was held to draw up a new settlement for Europe amongst the European powers after the defeat of Napoleon..

The following changes were made:

1. The Bourbon Dynasty was restored to power.
2. France had to part with most of its territories which were annexed by Napoleon.
3. A large number of States were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent its further expansion.
4. The kingdom of Neither land was set up in North.
5. Prussia was given important territories on its Western frontiers.


The Hoa Hoa movement was found by a man called Huynh Phu So in 1939. It gained great popularity in the fertile mekong Delta area. It drew on religious ideas popular in anti - French uprisings of the nineteenth century. Huynh Phu So's criticism against useless expenditure had a wide appeal. He also opposed the sale of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol. Fench put him in metal asylum. Interestingly, the doctor who had to who had to prove him insane became his follower in 1941 even the French doctors declared that he was sane. The french authorities exiled him to Laos and sent many of his followers to concentration camps.


Which one of the following was an impact of the Great Depression of 1930s on Vietnam?

  • Japan defeated and occupied Vietnam.

  • Price of rice and rubber increased.

  • There was decrease in unemployment.

  • There was decrease in unemployment.


There was decrease in unemployment.


The idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment of nationalism in the first half of the nineteenth century became a narrow creed with limited ends. Examine the statement.


The roles of women varied in the anti-imperialist movement in vietnam. Examine the statement.

During this period nationalist groups became increasingly intolerant of each other and ever ready to go to war. The major European powers, in turn, manipulated the nationalist aspirations of the subject peoples in europe to further their own imperialist aims. The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the ares called the Balkans.

The Balkans which was a region comprising of geographical and ethnical variation comprising modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs. The Balkan states were fircely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the others. Matters were further complicated because the Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry.

Each power- Russia, Germany, England and Austro-Hungary – was keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans, and extending its own control over the area. This led to a serious of wars in the region and finally the First World War.


The role of women in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam:

(i) In the 1960s, photographs in magazines and journals showed women as brave fighters. There were pictures of women militia shooting down planes. They were portrayed as young, brave and dedicated. Stories were written to show how happy they felt when they joined the army and could carry a rifle.

(ii) Women were represented not only as warriors but also as workers: they were shown with a rifle in one hand and a hammer in the other. Whether young or old, women began to be depicted as selflessly working and fighting to save the country. As casualties in the war increased in the 1960s, women were urged to join the struggle in larger numbers.

(iii) Many women responded and joined the resistance movement. They helped in nursing the wounded, constructing underground rooms and tunnels and fighting the enemy. Along the Ho Chi Minh trail, young volunteers kept open 2,195 km. of strategic roads and guarded 2,500 key points.

(iv) Between 1965 and 1975, out of the 17,000 youth who worked on the trail, 70 to 80 percent were women. One military historian argues that there were 1.5 million women in the regular army, the militia, the local forces and professional teams.

(v) By the 1970s, as peace talks began to get underway and the end of the war seemed near, women were no longer represented as warriors. Now the image of women as workers begins to predominate. They are shown working in agricultural co-operatives, factories and production units, rather than as fighters.