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Cell Cycle and Cell Division

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12
Describe Meiosis II or Homotypic division.

Meiosis II is very similar to mitosis. It has the following stages which are -:

1. Prophase II. It occurs immediately after cytokinesis of meiosis I. The nuclear membrane disaapars and chromosomes become compact.

2. Metaphase II. The chromosomes arrange themselves on the equator. Each chromosome is attached to the spindle fibres of opposite poles by its centromeres. The spindle microtubules from the opposite poles attach to the kinetochores of sister chromatids.

3. Anaphase II. The centromere of each chromosome divides into two sister chromatids. Thus two chromatids of each chromosome move towards opposite poles. 

4. Telophase II. The group of young chromosomes at each pole arranges itself into a daughter nucleus. The nuclear membrane is formed. Nucleoli appear and spindles disappear. takes place resulting in the formation of four daughter cells. 



Name the process in which there is an exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromsomes during meiosis.

Crossing over.

 Namethe five phases of of Prophase I.

The five phases of prophase 1 are
i. Leptotene
ii. Zygotene
iii. Pachytene
iv. Diplotene
v.  Diakinesis. 

Name an important event that occurs during meiosis and not during mitosis.

Crossing over takes place during meiosis but not during mitosis.

 What are two types of cells on the basis of presence or absence of nucleus ?

On the basis of the presence and absence of nucleus the cells are divided into two types Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

What is polyteny ?

Polytene chromosomes are giant chromosomes which are formed due to repeated DNA replication without cell division. They are found in some insects.