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Chemical Coordination and Integration

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12

Write notes on the following :

i. Hypothyroidism
ii. Melatonin

i. Hypothyroidism - It is the secretion of thyroid hormone is lesser amount than the normal. The deficiency in iodine in the diet leads to hypothyroidism. 
The effects of hypothyroidism are:
a. Goitre that is enlargement of tyhrois glands.
b. Hypothyroidiem during pregnancy causes defective developement and maturation of the baby. It may lead to stunted growth that is cretinism. mental retardation, low intelligence quotient, abnormal skin, deaf-mutism etc.
c. In adult women , it leads to irregularity in menstrual cycle. 

ii. Melatonin - It is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland. It has the following role:
a. It regulates the 24 hour cycle or the diurnal rhythm of the body. 
b. It regulates the normal rhythm of the sleep-wake cycle.
c. It maintains the body temperature.
d. It regulates the skin pigmentation, influences the metabolism, menstrual cycle and the defense capability of the body. 

What is goitre?

Goitre is the condition in the the thyroid gland is enlarged and the neck portion becomes swollen .It is due to the deficiency of iodine in our diet which results in the less production and secretion of the thyroid hormones that is hypothyroidism.

Name the cells that the thyroid gland is composed of.

The thyroid gland is composed of the following :
i. Follicles
ii. Stromal tissue

Name the largest endocrine gland.

Thyroid gland.

Why is the Parathyroid hormone called hypercalcemic hormone?

PTH or parathyroid hormone is also called hypercalcemic hormone as it increase the calcium level in the blood.

Name the endocrine gland which is H shaped.

Thyroid gland.