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Chemical Coordination and Integration

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12
What are the  principal hormones produced by the anterior pituitary? What function does each serve ?

Anterior lobe of pituitary : It is also known as Pars digitalis. It produces six hormones. 

The hormones produced are:

1. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) : It is a proteinaceous hormone. It acts on the thyroid gland and regulates the secretion of the thyroid hormone. 

2. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH or Corticotropin hormone) : It is a peptide hormone. It controls functioning of adrenal cortex, especially secretion of glucocorticoids & sex corticoids.

3. Growth hormone, somatotropin hormone (STH) : It is a proteinaceous hormone. It regulates the synthesis of growth of the body. 

4. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) : It is a glycoprotein gonadotrophic hormone. It controls spermatogenesis in testes, maturation of graafian follicles and secretion of estrogens in ovaries.

5. Luteinising hormone (LH) : It performs the following functions
(i) In females LH helps in growth and development of graafian follicles, ovulation, growth of ruptured follicle.

(ii) In females LH also helps in secretion of progestrone by corpus luteum.

(iii) IIn males it acts on Leydig’s or interstitial cells of testes to secrete testosterone and other androgens.

6. Prolactin (PRL) : It is a proteinaceous hormone. It stimulates development of mammary glands during pregnancy and lactation after child birth.


Name the cells that the thyroid gland is composed of.

The thyroid gland is composed of the following :
i. Follicles
ii. Stromal tissue

Why is the Parathyroid hormone called hypercalcemic hormone?

PTH or parathyroid hormone is also called hypercalcemic hormone as it increase the calcium level in the blood.

Name the endocrine gland which is H shaped.

Thyroid gland.

Name the largest endocrine gland.

Thyroid gland.

What is goitre?

Goitre is the condition in the the thyroid gland is enlarged and the neck portion becomes swollen .It is due to the deficiency of iodine in our diet which results in the less production and secretion of the thyroid hormones that is hypothyroidism.