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Chemical Coordination and Integration

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Class 10 Class 12
In general, how do steroid hormones effect changes in their targets cells ? 

The steroid hormones bring changes in their target cells in the following manner :

1. Steroid hormones are lipid soluble hormones and can readily pass through the plasma membrane of a target cell.

2. After reaching the cytoplasm they bind to specific intracellular receptor proteins. They form a complex that enters the nucleus and binds to specific regulatory sites on chromosomes.

3. The binding alters the pattern of gene expression, initiating the tanscription of some genes (DNA), while repressing the transcription of others.

4. This results in the production of specific mRNA translation products such as proteins and usually enzymes, thus causing the required effects. 



Name the endocrine gland which is H shaped.

Thyroid gland.

Name the largest endocrine gland.

Thyroid gland.

What is goitre?

Goitre is the condition in the the thyroid gland is enlarged and the neck portion becomes swollen .It is due to the deficiency of iodine in our diet which results in the less production and secretion of the thyroid hormones that is hypothyroidism.

Name the cells that the thyroid gland is composed of.

The thyroid gland is composed of the following :
i. Follicles
ii. Stromal tissue

Why is the Parathyroid hormone called hypercalcemic hormone?

PTH or parathyroid hormone is also called hypercalcemic hormone as it increase the calcium level in the blood.