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Chemical Coordination and Integration

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Class 10 Class 12

List the hormones secreted by the following

(1) Hypothalamus ,(2) Pituiltary gland , (3) Thyroid gland
(4) Parathyroid gland , (5) Adrenal gland, (6) pancreas

(7) Testis, (8) Ovary, (9) Thymus

(10) Atrium, (11) Kidney , (12) G–1 Tract.

(1) Hypothalamus :

It secretes following hormones:

(a) Hypothalamus: Hormones secreted by the hypothalamus include:

(1) Releasing hormones: These hormones stimulate the secretions of the pituitary hormone. Examples of these hormones are:
(i) Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone
(ii) Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone
(iii) Somatotropin-releasing hormone
(iv) Adrenocorticotrophin-releasing hormone

(2) Inhibiting hormones: These hormones inhibit the secretions of the pituitary hormone. Examples of these hormones are:
(i) Somatostatin
(ii) Growth-inhibiting hormone
(iii) Melanocyte-inhibiting hormone

(2) Pituitary gland :
 Pituitary gland is divided into.

(i) Adeno hypophysis (ii) Neuro hypophysis 

Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis are:
(i) Growth hormone (GH)
(ii) Prolactin
(iii) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
(iv) Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
(v) Luteinizing hormone (LH)
(vi) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
(vii) Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

Hormones secreted by the neurohypophysis are:
(i) Oxytocin
(ii) Vasopressin

(3) Thyroid gland :

Follicle cells of thyroid gland secrete two hormones.

Tetraidothyronine (T4)

Tridothysonine (T3)

C cells of thyroid also secrete thyrocalcitonin.

(4) Parathyroid gland : It secretes parathyroid hormone .

(5) Adrenal gland :
The adrenal gland has outer
(i) Adrenal cortex
(ii) Adrenal medulla.

(i) Adrenal cortex has three parts :

(a) Outer part or zona glomerulosa : It secretes mineral corticoids.

(b) Middle part or zona fasciculata : It secretes glucocorticoids,.

(c) Inner part or zona reticularis : Both middle and inner part secrete sex corticoids.

(ii) Adrenal medulla :
It secretes
i. epinephrine or adrenaline hormone
ii. noradrenaline or norepinephrine hormone.

(6) Pancreas : Its cells called Islets of Langerhans are of two types :

(a) α cells : These secrete glucagon hormone. (b) β cells : These secrete insulin.

(7) Testis: It has interstitial cells or cells of leydig which secrete androgens mainly testosterone.

(8) Ovary: The graafian follicle secretes estrogen hormone.

Corpus luteum secretes progesterone and relaxin hormone.

(9) Thymus :
It secretes thymosin hormone.

(10) Atrium : The atrial wall secretes atrial natiuretic factor (ANF)

(11) Kidney : The juxtaglomerular cells of kidney produce erythropoietrin hormone.

(12) G–1 Tract :

It secretes following hormones.
(i) secretin
(ii) cholecystokinin (CCK)
(iii) enterogastrone or gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)
(iv) Villikinin
(v) Duocrinin
(vi) Enterocrinin.


What is goitre?

Goitre is the condition in the the thyroid gland is enlarged and the neck portion becomes swollen .It is due to the deficiency of iodine in our diet which results in the less production and secretion of the thyroid hormones that is hypothyroidism.

Name the endocrine gland which is H shaped.

Thyroid gland.

Why is the Parathyroid hormone called hypercalcemic hormone?

PTH or parathyroid hormone is also called hypercalcemic hormone as it increase the calcium level in the blood.

Name the cells that the thyroid gland is composed of.

The thyroid gland is composed of the following :
i. Follicles
ii. Stromal tissue

Name the largest endocrine gland.

Thyroid gland.