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Plant Growth and Development

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12
What do you understand by photoperiodism and vernalisation ? Describe their significance.

(A) Photoperiodism . It is the response of plants to periods of day/night. The flowering in some plants depends not only on a combination of light and dark exposures but also their relative durations. The plants that need a longer duration for a period exceeding a well defined critical duration, while the short day plants must be exposed to light for a period less than this critical duration before the flowering is initiated in them.

Significance : Photoperiodism helps in studying the response of flowering in various crop plants with respect to the duration of exposure to light. It is the phenomenon which helps in flowering out of season.

(B) Vernalization : Vernalisation refers specially to the promotion of flowering by a
period of low temperature. It is the treatment of cold (3-15°C) to arrest vegetative growth and initiate flowering.

Significance of vernalization :

1. It shortens the vegetative phase.

2. It makes the plant resistant to cold and fungal pathogens.

3. It prevents precocious reproductive development late in the growing season, and enables the plant to have sufficient time to reach maturity.

Who coined the term gibberellin ?

Yabuta.

Term kinetinwas coined by whom ?

Skoog and Miller.

Who isolated auxin and from where ?

Auxin was isolated by F.W. Went from tips of coleoptiles of oat seedling.

Give the types of auxins.

Auxins are of two types :

(1) Natural auxins : These are naturally occuring auxins, isolated from plants and are regarded as phytohormones e.g. IAA. NAA etc.

(2) Synthetic auxins : These are synthesized by artificially e.g. IBA 2,4-D etc.

What is C/N ratio ?

C/N ratio is the ratio of carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds which regulate the growth in plants.

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