Mechanical Properties of Fluids

Physics Part II

Physics

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Torricelli’s barometer used mercury. Pascal duplicated it using French wine of density 984 kg/m^{3}. Determine the height of wine column for normal atmospheric pressure.

Density of wine = 984 kg/m

Now, according to Pascal's law, we have

Pressure due to height column of liquid is,

$\mathrm{P}=\mathrm{\rho gh}$ ... (1)

The normal atmospheric pressure is 760 mm og Hg.

If h' is the height column of wine corresponding to one atmospheric pressure, then

$\mathrm{P}=\mathrm{\sigma gh}\text{'}$ ... (2)

where $\mathrm{\sigma}$ is the density of the wire.

Now from equations (1) ad (2), we get

$\mathrm{\rho gh}=\mathrm{\sigma gh}\text{'}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\Rightarrow \mathrm{h}\text{'}=\frac{\mathrm{\rho h}}{\mathrm{\sigma}}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}=\frac{13600\times 0.76}{984}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}=10.5\mathrm{m}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}$ ,

is the height of wine column for normal atmospheric pressure.

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Why solids have definite shape while liquids do not have definite shape?

Solids: Intermolecular forces are very strong and thermal agitations are not sufficiently strong to separate the molecules from their mean position. Solids are rigid and hence they have definite shapes.

Liquids: In liquids intermolecular forces are not sufficiently strong to hold the molecules at definite sites, as a result they move freely within the bulk of liquid, therefore, do not possess definite shapes. Liquids take the same shape as that of the container.

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What is hydrostatics?

Hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies incompressible fluids at rest. The study of fluids at rest or objects placed at rest in fluids is hydrostatics.

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What is hydrodynamics?

Hydrodynamics is the branch of science that studies about the force exerted by the fluids or acting on the fluids.

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What is fluid?

Any material that can flow is a fluid. Liquids and gases are examples of fluid.

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