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Mechanical Properties of Fluids

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Physics Part II

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Class 10 Class 12

(a) Ice floats in water with about nine-tenth of its volume submerged. What is the fractional volume submerged for an iceberg floating on a fresh water lake of (hypothetical) a planet whose gravity is ten times that of the earth?

(b) What is the fractional volume submerged of an ice-cube in a pail of water placed in an enclosure which is freely falling under gravity?

(a) Let a be the density of ice and ρ be the density of water.

The ice floats in water.

Therefore, weight of ice is equal to the weight of liquid displaced.

Let the volume of ice be V and volume of water displaced be V'.

therefore space space space space space Vσ space straight g space equals space straight V apostrophe space ρg

rightwards double arrow space space space space fraction numerator straight V apostrophe over denominator straight V end fraction equals straight sigma over straight rho

i.e. fractional volume displaced by ice is independent of g.

Therefore, on the new hypothetical planet, fractional volume displaced by ice is also same as that on the earth i.e. nine-tenth.

(b) In free falling state, ice-cube is in weightlessness state and also the thrust exerted by water is zero. Therefore, it can float with any volume submerged.


What is hydrodynamics?

Hydrodynamics is the branch of science that studies about the force exerted by the fluids or acting on the fluids. 

What is hydrostatics?

Hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies incompressible fluids at rest. The study of fluids at rest or objects placed at rest in fluids is hydrostatics.

What is fluid?

Any material that can flow is a fluid. Liquids and gases are examples of fluid.


Do intermolecular or inter-atomic forces follow inverse square law?

No. Intermolecular and inter-atomic forces do not obey the inverse square law. 

Why solids have definite shape while liquids do not have definite shape?

Solids: Intermolecular forces are very strong and thermal agitations are not sufficiently strong to separate the molecules from their mean position. Solids are rigid and hence they have definite shapes.
Liquids: In liquids intermolecular forces are not sufficiently strong to hold the molecules at definite sites, as a result they move freely within the bulk of liquid, therefore, do not possess definite shapes. Liquids take the same shape as that of the container.