ï»¿ What are the limitations of Bernoulli's equation? from Physics Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Manipur Board

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What are the limitations of Bernoulli's equation?

Limitations of Bernoulli's equations are as follows:

(i) Bernoulli's equation is derived by assuming that there is no loss of mechanical energy i.e. sum of pressure energy, potential energy and kinetic energy is constant. But when fluid is in motion, a part of mechanical energy is converted into heat energy.

(ii) Bernoulli's equation is derived by assuming that liquid is non-viscous. But actually none of the liquids is non-viscous. All liquids have a tendency to flow, less or more.

(iii) Bernoulli's equation is derived by assuming that velocity of every fluid particle across any cross-section of pipe is same. But the particles of central layer have maximum velocity and velocity decreases towards the walls of pipe.
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Why solids have definite shape while liquids do not have definite shape?

Solids: Intermolecular forces are very strong and thermal agitations are not sufficiently strong to separate the molecules from their mean position. Solids are rigid and hence they have definite shapes.
Liquids: In liquids intermolecular forces are not sufficiently strong to hold the molecules at definite sites, as a result they move freely within the bulk of liquid, therefore, do not possess definite shapes. Liquids take the same shape as that of the container.
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What is fluid?

Any material that can flow is a fluid. Liquids and gases are examples of fluid.

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What is hydrodynamics?

Hydrodynamics is the branch of science that studies about the force exerted by the fluids or acting on the fluids.
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What is hydrostatics?

Hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies incompressible fluids at rest. The study of fluids at rest or objects placed at rest in fluids is hydrostatics.
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Do intermolecular or inter-atomic forces follow inverse square law?

No. Intermolecular and inter-atomic forces do not obey the inverse square law.
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