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Mechanical Properties of Fluids

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Physics Part II

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Class 10 Class 12
Explain why water cannot be used in place of mercury in a barometer?

The atmospheric pressure at sea level = 76cm of Hg = 1.013x10Pascal. 

If we fill the water in barometer tube, the height of water column required to balance the atmospheric pressure will be,

   h =Atmospheric PressureDensity of water×acceleration due to gravity   =1.013×1051000×9.81   =10.326m 

That is, if water is used in barometer tube instead of mercury, the length of the tube must be greater than 10.326 cm. A greater height will be difficult to hold in a vertical position and needs a high tower to install the barometer. 

So, we cannot replace mercury by water in the barometer. 


What is hydrodynamics?

Hydrodynamics is the branch of science that studies about the force exerted by the fluids or acting on the fluids. 

What is fluid?

Any material that can flow is a fluid. Liquids and gases are examples of fluid.


Why solids have definite shape while liquids do not have definite shape?

Solids: Intermolecular forces are very strong and thermal agitations are not sufficiently strong to separate the molecules from their mean position. Solids are rigid and hence they have definite shapes.
Liquids: In liquids intermolecular forces are not sufficiently strong to hold the molecules at definite sites, as a result they move freely within the bulk of liquid, therefore, do not possess definite shapes. Liquids take the same shape as that of the container. 

Do intermolecular or inter-atomic forces follow inverse square law?

No. Intermolecular and inter-atomic forces do not obey the inverse square law. 

What is hydrostatics?

Hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies incompressible fluids at rest. The study of fluids at rest or objects placed at rest in fluids is hydrostatics.