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Mechanical Properties of Fluids

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Physics Part II

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Class 10 Class 12
Two limbs of hydraulic lift have area of cross-section 5 cm2 and 100 cm2. To lift the weight of 24 kg placed on 5 cm2 cross-section, what force must be applied on the piston of cross-section 100 cm2?

Given, two hydraulic lifts. 

Area of cross-section of first limb = 5 cm2 

Area of cross section of second limb = 100 cm

Weight of the load = 24 

Area of cross-section on which the load is kept = 5 cm2 

Now, using Pascal's law, we have 

     F1a1 = F2a2  F2 = a2a1F  

Here, a= 5 cm2 , F= 235 N
a2 = 100 cm2 

So, force F21005× 235 = 4700 N, is the force applied on a piston of cross-sectional area 100 cm2


What is fluid?

Any material that can flow is a fluid. Liquids and gases are examples of fluid.


What is hydrodynamics?

Hydrodynamics is the branch of science that studies about the force exerted by the fluids or acting on the fluids. 

Why solids have definite shape while liquids do not have definite shape?

Solids: Intermolecular forces are very strong and thermal agitations are not sufficiently strong to separate the molecules from their mean position. Solids are rigid and hence they have definite shapes.
Liquids: In liquids intermolecular forces are not sufficiently strong to hold the molecules at definite sites, as a result they move freely within the bulk of liquid, therefore, do not possess definite shapes. Liquids take the same shape as that of the container. 

Do intermolecular or inter-atomic forces follow inverse square law?

No. Intermolecular and inter-atomic forces do not obey the inverse square law. 

What is hydrostatics?

Hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies incompressible fluids at rest. The study of fluids at rest or objects placed at rest in fluids is hydrostatics.