Show that the force acting on the liquid in equilibrium is perpendicular to the free surface of liquid. from Physics Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Manipur Board
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Show that the force acting on the liquid in equilibrium is perpendicular to the free surface of liquid.

Consider a liquid in a container. The liquid is in an equilibrium condition. Force F is acting on the liquid at angle θ with the free surface of liquid as shown in figure below.

 


On resolving the components of force, we get
Fcosθ - component of force along the surface
Fsinθ - component of force ormal to the surface

In the equilibrium state, component of force along the surface is 0. 

Therefore, 

    Fcosθ = 0 
 cos θ = 0o i.e.,    θ = 90o

So, the force must be normal to surface.
Thus, the free surface of liquid in equilibrium adjusts normal to the direction of force acting on it. 


 
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What is fluid?

Any material that can flow is a fluid. Liquids and gases are examples of fluid.


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