ï»¿ Show that the force acting on the liquid in equilibrium is perpendicular to the free surface of liquid. from Physics Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Manipur Board

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Show that the force acting on the liquid in equilibrium is perpendicular to the free surface of liquid.

Consider a liquid in a container. The liquid is in an equilibrium condition. Force F is acting on the liquid at angle $\mathrm{\theta }$ with the free surface of liquid as shown in figure below.

On resolving the components of force, we get
Fcos$\mathrm{\theta }$ - component of force along the surface
Fsin$\mathrm{\theta }$ - component of force ormal to the surface

In the equilibrium state, component of force along the surface is 0.

Therefore,

Fcos$\mathrm{\theta }$ = 0

So, the force must be normal to surface.
Thus, the free surface of liquid in equilibrium adjusts normal to the direction of force acting on it.

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Do intermolecular or inter-atomic forces follow inverse square law?

No. Intermolecular and inter-atomic forces do not obey the inverse square law.
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What is hydrodynamics?

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What is fluid?

Any material that can flow is a fluid. Liquids and gases are examples of fluid.

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Why solids have definite shape while liquids do not have definite shape?

Solids: Intermolecular forces are very strong and thermal agitations are not sufficiently strong to separate the molecules from their mean position. Solids are rigid and hence they have definite shapes.
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