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Mechanical Properties of Fluids

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Physics Part II

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12
What should be the ratio of cohesive force between liquid molecules and the adhesive force between liquid molecules and the tube molecules so that the shape of meniscus is: (i) concave (ii) convex? 

When we dip the capillary tube in liquid, at the contact, two types of forces are acting on liquid molecule as shown:

(i) For the molecules which are perpendicular to the surface of the tube, adhesive force acts. 

(ii) For liquid molecules at an angle of 45o, cohesive force will act on the molecules. 


    If          a>csin 45° =fc2,

Resultant force or liquid molecule is outside the tube and meniscus is concave, and 

 If          a>csin 45° =fc2

then, meniscus is convex.


What is fluid?

Any material that can flow is a fluid. Liquids and gases are examples of fluid.


Do intermolecular or inter-atomic forces follow inverse square law?

No. Intermolecular and inter-atomic forces do not obey the inverse square law. 

What is hydrostatics?

Hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies incompressible fluids at rest. The study of fluids at rest or objects placed at rest in fluids is hydrostatics.

Why solids have definite shape while liquids do not have definite shape?

Solids: Intermolecular forces are very strong and thermal agitations are not sufficiently strong to separate the molecules from their mean position. Solids are rigid and hence they have definite shapes.
Liquids: In liquids intermolecular forces are not sufficiently strong to hold the molecules at definite sites, as a result they move freely within the bulk of liquid, therefore, do not possess definite shapes. Liquids take the same shape as that of the container. 

What is hydrodynamics?

Hydrodynamics is the branch of science that studies about the force exerted by the fluids or acting on the fluids.