What should be the ratio of cohesive force between liquid molecules and the adhesive force between liquid molecules and the tube molecules so that the shape of meniscus is: (i) concave (ii) convex?  from Physics Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Manipur Board
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Physics Part II

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What should be the ratio of cohesive force between liquid molecules and the adhesive force between liquid molecules and the tube molecules so that the shape of meniscus is: (i) concave (ii) convex? 

When we dip the capillary tube in liquid, at the contact, two types of forces are acting on liquid molecule as shown:



(i) For the molecules which are perpendicular to the surface of the tube, adhesive force acts. 

(ii) For liquid molecules at an angle of 45o, cohesive force will act on the molecules. 

So,

    If          a>csin 45° =fc2,

Resultant force or liquid molecule is outside the tube and meniscus is concave, and 


 If          a>csin 45° =fc2

then, meniscus is convex.

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