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Mechanical Properties of Fluids

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Physics Part II

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Class 10 Class 12
Mercury has an angle of contact equal to 140° with soda-lime glass. A narrow tube of radius 1.00 mm made of this glass is dipped in a trough containing mercury. By what amount does the mercury dip down in the tube relative to the liquid surface outside? (Surface tension of mercury at the temperature of the experiment is 0.465 N/m. Density of mercury = 13.6x10–3kgm–3.)


Angle of contact, θ = 140°

Radius of the narrow tube, r = 1.0mm=10-3m
Surface tension, T = 0.465 N/m
Density of mercury, ρ = 13600  kg/m3

We know the height by which liquid rises in the tube is,

             h=2T cosθrpg  =2×0.465 cos 14010-3×13600×9.8  = -0.00535m  = -5.35m 

Negative sign means that mercury will dip down.

 Mercury will dip down by 5.35 mm.


What is hydrodynamics?

Hydrodynamics is the branch of science that studies about the force exerted by the fluids or acting on the fluids. 

Do intermolecular or inter-atomic forces follow inverse square law?

No. Intermolecular and inter-atomic forces do not obey the inverse square law. 

Why solids have definite shape while liquids do not have definite shape?

Solids: Intermolecular forces are very strong and thermal agitations are not sufficiently strong to separate the molecules from their mean position. Solids are rigid and hence they have definite shapes.
Liquids: In liquids intermolecular forces are not sufficiently strong to hold the molecules at definite sites, as a result they move freely within the bulk of liquid, therefore, do not possess definite shapes. Liquids take the same shape as that of the container. 

What is fluid?

Any material that can flow is a fluid. Liquids and gases are examples of fluid.


What is hydrostatics?

Hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies incompressible fluids at rest. The study of fluids at rest or objects placed at rest in fluids is hydrostatics.