Given, an ideal gas of bulk modulus 'K' and is heated to a temperature .
Increase of temperature of gas at constant volume is equivalent if the gas is first heated at constant pressure and then compressed isothermally to original volume.
Let V be the volume of gas. When it is heated through a temperature θ at constant pressure, then the increase in volume of gas is,
∆V = Vγθ
Now compress the gas isothermally so that the volume decreases by ∆V = Vγθ.
If ∆P be the stress set up in the gas, then
Adhesive force is the attractive force between two unlike molecules. They are caused by forces acting between two substances like electrostatic force (attraction due to opposing charges), mechanical force etc.
E.g., Force of attraction between gum and paper.
Inter-atomic or inter-molecular forces are electrostatic in nature.