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Class 10 Class 12
The stress-strain graph for a metal wire is shown in the figure. Up to the point E, the wire returns to its original state O along the curve EPO, when it is gradually unloaded. Point B corresponds to the fracture of the wire.

(a) Upto what point on the curve is the Hooke’s law obeyed? (This point is sometimes called ‘Proportional limit’).

(b) Which point on the curve corresponds to ‘elastic limit’ or yield point of the wire?

(c) Indicate the elastic and plastic regions of the stress-strain graph.

(d) Describe what happens when the wire is loaded upto a stress corresponding to the point A on the graph, and then unloaded gradually. In particular, explain the dotted curve.

(e) What is peculiar(odd) about the portion of the stress-strain graph from C to B? Upto what stress can the wire be subjected without causing fracture?

(a) Hooke's law states that that stress is directly proportional to strain. From the graph, we can say that Hooke’s law is obeyed from point O to P. 

(b) E point on the curve corresponds to elastic limit or the yield point.

(c) Elastic region is the region in which the body regains its state after removal of stress and is from O to E. Plastic region is the region in which there is residue strain after removing the stress and that region is E to B. 

(d) From O to P, the strain is directly proportional to stress, beyond P increase in strain is more for same increase in stress. Beyond E, when stress is increased, it does not retrace its path on decreasing the stress, but returns to point O' along path AO'. Therefore there is residue strain of 00' when stress is increased corresponding to the point A.

(e) From C to B, strain increases even if the wire is being unloaded and at B, it fractures. Till point C, stress can be applied without causing the fracture. 


What do you understand by intermolecular forces?

Intermolecular force is the force between the molecules of the substance is called intermolecular force.

There is a dipole-dipole interaction between the molecules.

What is the force of cohesion?

Cohesive attraction or cohesive force is the force of attraction between same types of molecules sticking together. 

Define interatomic forces and give an example?

The force between atoms of the molecule is called interatomic force.

E.g.The nucleus and electron cloud of a molecule is binded by electrostatic force. 

What is the force of adhesion?

Adhesive force is the attractive force between two unlike molecules. They are caused by forces acting between two substances like electrostatic force (attraction due to opposing charges), mechanical force etc. 

E.g., Force of attraction between gum and paper.


What is the nature of inter-atomic or inter-molecular forces?

Inter-atomic or inter-molecular forces are electrostatic in nature.