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Natural Hazards and Disasters

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India Physical Environment

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Class 10 Class 12
What are natural hazards ?

Natural Hazards are elements of circumstances in the Natural environment that have the potential to cause harm to people or property or both.

Mention the resolution of the World Conference on Natural Disasters Reduction held in the city of Yokohama.

The resolution of the World Conference on Natural Disasters Reduction is as mentioned below:

(i) It will note that each country has the sovereign responsibility to protect its citizens from natural disasters;

(ii) It will give priority attention to the developing countries, particularly the least developed, land-locked countries and small-island developing states;

(iii) It will develop and strengthen national capacities and capabilities and, where appropriate, national legislation for natural and other disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness, including the mobilisation of non-governmental organisations and participation of local communities;

(iv) It will promote and strengthen sub-regional, regional and international cooperation in activities to prevent, reduce and mitigate natural and other disasters, with particular emphasis on:

(a) human and institutional capacity-building and strengthening;

(b) technology sharing: the collection, the dissemination and utilisation of information; and

(c) mobilisation of resources.


What do you know about spatio -temporal Distribution of tropical cyclone in India?

The spatio -temporal Distribution of tropical cyclone in India:

i. Owing to its Peninsular shape surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west, the tropical cyclones in India also originate in these two important locations.

ii. Though most of the cyclones originate between 10°-15° north latitudes during the monsoon season, yet in case of the Bay of Bengal, cyclones mostly develop during the months of October and November.

iii. Here, they originate between 16°-2° N latitudes and to the west of 92° E. By July the place of origin of these storms shifts to around 18° N latitude and west of 90°E near the Sunderban Delta.

What is a landslide ? Explain their effects.

Groundwater increases the weight of the rock or the soil which contains it.

Sometimes a mass of earth saturated with water slides down a hill slope causing landslides. There are many varieties of landslides depending on the mass, sliding and the distance traversed by it. Those which move only through short distances are called slumps. When millions of cubic of material moves through thousands of feet distance, they are known as rock slides. When under gravity rock material falls down a high cliff, debris fall or rockfall occurs.

Effects of landslides : Landslides produce great scars on the sides of mountains, and sometimes give a rippled shape to the hillside on account of mixed rock slumps on the back slope. Landslides and rockslides are of frequent occurrence in many mountains. In 1957, such a huge landslide came down in Kashmir. The traffic was suspended for many days. Recently a landslide in Tehri-Garhwal region occurred due to cloud burst.


Distinguish between a hazard and a disaster.

Hazards and Disasters :
1. Hazards and disasters are closely related and are sometimes synonymous to each other.
2. Hazard is a threat while a disaster an event.

Describe the structure of tropical cyclone.

Structure of tropical cyclone:

i. Tropical cyclones are characterised by large pressure gradients.

ii. The centre of the cyclone is mostly a warm and low-pressure, cloudless core known as eye of the storm.

iii. Generally, the isobars are closely placed to each other showing high-pressure gradients.

iv. Normally, it varies between 14-17mb/100 km, but sometimes it can be as high as 60mb/100km.

v. Expansion of the wind belt is about 10-150 km from the centre.