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Class 10 Class 12
How did the geological structure and geomorphologic processes active in the Indian subcontinent came into existence?

It was primarily through the interplay of the endogenic and exogenic forces and lateral movements of the plates that the present geological structure and geomorphologic processes active in the Indian subcontinent came into existence.

Name two  fresh water and salt water lake found in kashmir Himalyas.

(i)Fresh water lake - Dal and Wular

(ii)Salt water lakes - Pangong Tso and Tso Moriri 

Explain the relief, soil, rivers, location etc. of Deccan Plateau.

Deccan plateau lies to the south of the river Narmada flanked by the Western Ghats on the west and Eastern Ghats on the east. The Western and Eastern Ghats meet to form Nilgiri mountains along the border of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

Its northern part is made up of volcanic lavas and black or regur soils are found here. It is of triangular shape, widest in the northward while goes on tapering as its move towards the south. This part of Peninsular plateau is drained by Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kavery rivers. We see the Mahadev,

The Kaimur hills and Maikal range in the east of this plateau. Western Ghats are unbroken or continuous and these can be crossed through passes made in Thal, Bhor and Pal Ghats. Western Ghats are higher than the Eastern Ghats.

An average elevation of Western Ghat is 900-1600 metres while it is 600 metres when we talk about the Eastern Ghats. Western Ghats run parallel to the western coast and the Eastern Ghats are spread from the Mahanadi valley to the Nilgiri in the south.

State three characteristics of Himalayas, which indicate their youthful stage.

It has been proved that the Himalayas are of very young age as they had formed in the tertiary period. The geologists and archaeologists have collected many items of evidence in order to prove their youthfulness. The following three items of evidences are given here :

1. The occurrence of Karewas, the tilted bends of the lake deposits of Kashmir at altitudes of 1500--1800 meters on the flanks of Pir Panjal Range.

2. The fossils of post-tertiary mammals have been found in the sub-Himalayan foot- hills, pointing continuity of upliftment during the Pleistocene times.

3. The archaeologists have collected curious stone tools, representing the Paleolithic times, early man in the terraces of Himalayan rivers, such as the Sohan, and in the Siwalik deposits near Chandigarh. The Siwaliks are believed to be the latest upliftment of the Himalayas.


Describe the features of the Island Groups of India.

 Two island groups are included in the physiography of India. These are : 1. Lakshadweep islands and 2. Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

1. Features of Lakshadweep :

(i) It is a group of 36 smaller coral islands with total area of 32 sq. kilometres.

(ii) Formally, this islands group was known as Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive islands renamed as Lakshadweep in 1973.

(iii) It lies at a distance of 300 kilometres from the west of Kerala coast.

(iv) These islands are inaccessible and only eleven islands are inhabited.

(v) Headquarter of this Union Territory is located at Kavaratti, famous for numerous species of flora and fauna.

(vi) This groups of islands lies between 8°N-12°N latitudes and 71°E-74°E longitudes.

2. Features of Andaman and Nicobar Islands :

(i) This U.T. is located in Bay of Bengal.

(ii) Two hundred islands of this group are spread over an area of 350 km. There are 19 islands in the Nicobar group.

(iii) Almost all islands of this group are inhabitable.

(iv) Here exists densely forested land and abysmal sea.

(v) These islands are like beads in a garland.

(vi) Here is equatorial climate, wildlife and ample quantity of natural resources.

(vii) An active volcano is located in one of its barren islands. Eruptions were seen on 10 April, 1991.

(viii) Headquarter of this islands group is located at Port Blair.

(ix) These lie between 6°45'N and 14°N latitudes and 92°E and 94°E longitudes.


Distinguish between the Western Himalayas and the Eastern Himalayas with peaks.

Western Himalayas

Eastern Himalayas

(i)These are spread over Jammu and Kashmir as also Himachal Pradesh.

(ii)These are divided into (a) the Greater Himalayas, (b) The Middle Himalayas and (c) The Siwaliks.

(iii)Nanga Parbat, Nanda Devi etc. peaks are found here.

(ii)These are spread over West Bengal, Sikkim, Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh.


(iii)These have a single range which runs from north to south.

(iii)There are some of the highest peaks i.e. Kanchenjunga, Mount Everest, Annapurna, Namcha Barwa etc.