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Explain the nature of thinking.


The mental or cognitive rearrangement or manipulation of both information from the environment and of symbols stored in long term memory.

1. Thinking is base of all cognitive activities.

2. It involves manipulation and analysis of information received from the environment.

3. Thinking is mostly goal directed and one desires to reach the goal by planning.

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Identify obstacles that one may encounter in problem solving.


There are two major obstacles to solving a problem. These are mental set, and lack of motivation.

(i) Mental set is a tendency of a person to solve problems by following already tried mental operations or steps.

(ii) Lack of motivation is another obstacle to solving problems. Due to lack of motivation people give up easily when they encounter a problem or failure in implementing the first step. Therefore, there is a need to persist in their effort to find a solution.

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How does reasoning help in solving problems? Is it a form of problem solving?


Reasoning is the process of gathering and analysing information to arrive at a conclusion.

Reasoning is a form of problem solving method. It is goal directed and involves inferences.

There are three ypes of reasoning:

(i) Inductive Reasoning: Reasoning is based on specific facts and observations. Through this reasoning people analysing other possible reasons. Scientific reasoning is inductive in nature.

(ii) Deductive Reasoning: The deductive reasoning begins with general solution and then draws specific solution.

(iii) Analogy: Analogy helps us in identifying and visualising the salient attributes of an object.

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Are judgement and decision-making interrelated processes? Explain.


Yes, judgement and decision-making are interrelated processes.

1. In decision-making the problem before us is to choose among alternatives by evaluating the cost and benefit associated with each alternative. For example, when you have the option to choose between psychology and economics your decision will be based on future prospects.

2. Decision making differs from other type of problem solving. In decision-making we already know the various solutions of choices.

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What is concept? Explain the role of concept in thinking process.


Concepts are mental categories for objects and events, which are similar to each other in one or in more than one way.

Role of concept in thinking process:

1. Concept formation helps us in organizing our knowledge so that whenever we access our knowledge we can do it in less time of effort.

2. Concepts used in thinking are neither deal nor unambigous. They are fuzzy. They overlap one another and are poorly defined.

3. To make thinking systematic a prototype is required. A prototype is a best representative member of category.

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