Define thinking.

Thinking is a complex process through which we can analyse information.


Write theories of following psychologists?

(a) Jean Piaget

(b) J.P. Guilford.

(c) Osborn’s brainstorming technique

(a) Jean Piaget a Swiss psychologist believed that thoughts not only determine language but it also precedes it. Piaget argued that children form an internal representation of world through language.

(b) J.P. Guilford pioneer in creative thinking, proposed two types of thinking convergent and divergent.

(c) Osborn’s brainstorming technique:

The basic idea let minds think freely and tendency to put judgement may be postponed.


Make a table showing mental operations involved in solving a problem.

Mental Operation

Nature of Problem

1. Identify the problem

1. A week is left for teachers’ day and you are given the task of organising a play.

2. Represent the problem

2. Organising a play would involve identification of an appropriate theme, screening of actors, actresses, arranging money, etc.

3. Plan the solution: Set sub-goals

3. Search and survey various available themes for a play, and consult teachers and friends who have the expertise. The play to be decided, based on such considerations as cost, duration, suitability for the occasion, etc.

4. Evaluate all solutions (plays)

4. Collect all the information/stage rehearsals.

5. Select one solution and execute it

5. Compare and verify the various options to get the best solution (the play).

6. Evaluate the outcome

6. If the play (solution) is appreciated, think about the steps you have followed for future reference for yourself as well as for your friends.

7. Rethink and redefine problems and solutions.

7. After this special occasion you can still think about ways to plan a better play in future.


Thinking is the base of:

  • all activities

  • all cognitive activities

  • all convergent activities

  • all convergent activities


all cognitive activities


Differentiate between following:

(a) Congergent and Divergent Thinking

(b) Inductive and deductive Reasoning

(a) Congergent and Divergent Thinking:





1. Convergent thinking has one correct answer.

1. Divergent thinking has many answers.

2. It does not include fluency, flexibility, and originality.

2. It includes fluency, flexibility and originality.

3. It does not helps in organisation of ideas.

3. It leads to organisation of new ideas.

(b) Inductive and deductive Reasoning:

Inductive Reasoning

Deductive Reasoning

1. This is based on specific facts and observation.

1. It begins with making general assumption.

2. In this reasoning people analyse other possible reasons and observe what the man is actually doing and them draw a conclusion.

2. In this reasoning people make such mistakes in the sense that they assume but do not always know if the basic assumption is true.


Describe the three characteristics of language.

The three characteristics of language are as follows:

(i) The first characteristic of language is that it involves symbols. Symbols represent something or someone else, for example, the place where we live is called ‘home’ the thing that we eat is called ‘food’. Words like home, food, and numerous other words do not in themselves carry any meaning. When these words are associated with some objects / events they attain meaning and we begin recognising those objects / events, etc. with particular words (symbols). We use symbols while thinking.

(ii) The second characteristic of language is that it involves rules. While combining two or more words we usually follow a definite and accepted order of presenting these words.

(iii) The third characteristic of language is that it is used for communicating one’s thought, ideas, intentions, and feelings to others. We communicate through the use of our body parts, called gestures or postures. This type of communication is called nonverbal communication.