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What steps have been taken up to conserve forests? 

Forests have an intricate interrelationship with life and environment. These provide numerous direct and indirect advantages to our economy and society. Hence conservation of forests is important to the survival and prosperity of humankind.

Accordingly, the Government of India proposed to have a nation-wide forest conservation policy, and adopted a forest policy in 1952, which was further modified in 1988. According to the new forest policy, the Government will emphasise sustainable forest management in order to conserve and expand forest reserve on the one hand, and to meet the needs of local people on the other

Based on forest conservation policy, following steps are being taken :

(i)Social forestry : It means the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands.

(ii)Urban forestry pertains to raising and management of trees on public and private lands.

(iii)Rural forestry gives emphasis or promotion of agro foresting and community foresting.


What is the difference between forest area and forest cover? 

The differences are:

(i)The forest area is the area notified and recorded as forest land irrespective of the existence of trees, while the actual forest cover is the area actually occupied by forests.

(ii)The forest area is based on the records of State Revenue Department.

(iii)The forest cover is based on areal photographs and satellite imageries. In 2001, the actual forest cover was only 20.55%.

What do you understand by social forestry ?

Social forestry means the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands with a purpose of helping in the environmental, social and rural development.

Define biosphere reserve. 

A biosphere reserve is a unique representative ecosystem of terrestrial and coastal areas which are internationally recognised within the framework of UNESCO's biosphere programme.

 What is natural vegetation ? Under what climatic conditions are tropical evergreen forests develop ? 

Natural vegetation refers to a plant community that has been left undisturbed over a long time so as to allow its individual species to adapt themselves to climate and soil conditions as fully as possible.

The tropical forests are found in those areas where rainfall is over 200 cm and the temperatures above 22°C.