'India is a land of great variety of natural vegetation'. Examine

India is a land of great variety of natural vegetation: 

(i)Himalayan heights are marked with temperate vegetation; the Western Ghats and the Andaman Nicobar Islands have tropical rain forests, the deltaic regions have tropical forests and mangroves. 

(ii)The desert and semi-desert areas of Rajasthan are known for cacti, a wide variety of bushes and thorny vegetation.

(iii)Depending upon the variations in the climate and the soil, the vegetation of India changes from one region to another.

Which five states of India have less than 10 percent of their geographical area under forests?

The states with less than 10 percent of the forest area are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Delhi.

Which are the two forms of tropical deciduous forests? Explain any one of it?

The two forms of tropical deciduous forests are:

(i)The Moist deciduous forests

(ii)Dry deciduous forest

The Moist deciduous forests -

(a)These are more pronounced in the regions which record rainfall between 100-200 cm.

(b)These forests are found in the northeastern states along the foothills of Himalayas, eastern slopes of the Western Ghats and Orissa. 

(c)Teak, sal, shisham, hurra, mahua, amla, semul, kusum, and sandalwood etc. are the main species of these forests.


Describe the aims of the India's new forest policy that was modified in 1988.

The forest policy aimed at :

(i)bringing 33 per cent of the geographical areas under forest cover;

(ii)maintaining environmental stability and to restore forests where ecological balance was disturbed;

(iii)conserving the natural heritage of the country, its biological diversity and genetic pool;

(iv)checks soil erosion, extension of the desert lands and reduction of floods and droughts;

(v)increasing the forest cover through social forestry and afforestation on degraded land.


Write the measures, you understand fit for the protection of wildlife.

(i) Ban on hunting should be strictly imposed.

(ii) Poachers and herdsmen should not be allowed to enter the forests.

(iii) More national parks and wildlife sanctuaries should be established.

(iv) Captive breeding of wildlife should be encouraged.

(v) Seminars, workshops, exhibitions etc. should be organised to highlight the importance of the protection of wild life to the public.

(vi) Adequate medical facilities should be provided to the wildlife.

(vii) Proper conditions should be created for the living and breeding.