2. The infection occurs due to the intake of contaminated food and water.
3. The pathogen in the food or water enters the small intestine and then the other parts through blood.
4. It is charaterized by : (a) sustained high fever (103° - 104° F), (b) stomach pain, (c) loss of appetite, (d) constipation and (e) headache.
5. The intestine may become perforated and lead to death in severe cases.
6. Typhoid can be detected by Widal test.
1. It is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae.
2. The microbes infect the alveoli of lungs, where the alveoli become filled with a fluid resulting in severe difficulty in breathing/respiration.
3. Symptoms.- The symptoms include : (a) fever, (b) headache, (c) cough and (d) chills (e) In severe cases the lips and fingernails may turn greyish to bluish.
4.Modes of transmission is by (a) inhalation of droplets released by an infected person and (b) sharing the contaminated utensils.
1. Having balanced diet.
2. Vaccination/immunisation against infectious diseases.
3. Controlling of vectors.
4. Proper disposal of wastes/excreta.
5. Consumption of clean food and drinking water.
6. Regular exercise or yoga.
7..Being aware about the diseases and their effects on different body functions.
8. Personal hygiene
1. It is caused by rhinoviruses.
2. These viruses infect the nasal and respiratory passages, but not the lungs.
3. Its symptoms include : (a) nasal congestion and discharge, (b) sore throat, (c) cough, (d) headache, (e) tiredness and (f) hoarseness.
4. It lasts for 3-7 days.
5. It spreads by (a) inhaling droplets resulting from cough and sneezing by infected person and (b) by contaminated food, water and objects like pen hanky or cups etc.
1. They are produced in cells of bone marrow and remain there and later migrate to lymphoid tissue.
2. These cells produce antibodies.
3. They are part of humoral immune system.
4. They act against viruses and bacteria in the blood.
1. They are produced in cells of bone marrow and migrate to the thymus and differentiate under the influence of thymus.
2. These cells do not produce antibodies.
3. They are part of cell mediated immune system.
4. They act against pathogenic microorganism, in cells.
5. T-cells are responsible for the rejection of the transplant.