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Reproduction in Organisms

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Why is reproduction essential for organisms ?

Reproduction is a process by which an organism produces young ones of its own kind to maintain the continuity of the species. It enables the species to live generation after generation.

Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction. Why is vegetative reproduction also considered as a type of asexual reproduction ?

(i) Differences between asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction

Asexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction

1. The process involves only one cell or one parent.

2. The whole body of the parent may act as reproductive unit or it can be single cell or a bud.

3. The offsprings are genetically similar to parent.

4. Only mitotic division takes place.

5. No formation of sex organs.

6. No evolutionary significance.

1. This process involves two cells or gametes belonging to either the same or different parents.

2. The reproductive unit is called gamete

which is unicellular and haploid.

3. The offsprings differ from parents.

4. Meiosis and mitosis both take place.

5. Formation of sex organs is essential.

6. It introduces variation hence of evolutionary significance.

(ii) Vegetative reproduction is also considered as a type of asexual reproduction because it does not involve  fusion of male and female gametes and require only one parent. New plants are produced by vegetative parts of plants without the formation of seeds or spores . 


Which is a better mode of reproduction: sexual or asexual? Why?

Sexual reproduction is a better mode of reproduction as it produces variations which are necessary for evolution and there are better chances for survival. Whereas in asexual mode of reproduction no variations are produced since only one parent is involved.

Offspring formed due to sexual reproduction have better chances of survival. Why? Is this statement always true?

The offspring formed due to sexual reproduction show variations because it involves fusion of two gametes. Due to crossing over during gametogenesis, random segregation of gametes or random fertilization more variations are there. These  differences produced in offspring help the organisms to adapt well  and increase chances of survival. whereas the asexual reproduction involves only one parent and the progeny is a clone , so there are no variations.

It is not always true that sexual reproduction has an advatage over asexual reproduction. Sometimes  when the organism has well established in a suitable environment asexual reproduction is more efficient because it requires less energy, no need to search for mate and is less time consuming.

Why is the offspring formed by asexual reproduction referred to as clone ?

The offspring formed by asexual reproduction is referred to as clone because the offspring is genetically identical to its parent.