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Class 10 Class 12

Explain any five common problems of Indian agriculture.

Problems of Indian Agriculture

(i) Dependence on Erratic Monsoon- Irrigation covers only about 33 percent of the cultivated area in India. The crop production in rest of the cultivated land directly depends on rainfall. Poor performance of south-west Monsoon also adversely affects the supply of canal water for irrigation.

(ii) Low productivity- The yield of the crops in the country is low in comparison to the international level. Per hectare output of most of the crops such as rice, wheat, cotton and oilseeds in India is much lower than that of U.S.A., Russia and Japan. The vast rainfed areas of the country, particularly drylands which mostly grow coarse cereals, pulses and oilseeds have very low yields.

(iii) Small Farm size and Fragmentation of Landholdings- More than 60 percent of the ownership holdings have a size smaller than one (ha). Furthermore, about 40 percent of the farmers have operational holding size smaller than 0.5 hectare (ha). In India, the land holdings are mostly fragmented.

(iv) Lack of commercialization- A large number of farmers produce crops for self-consumption. These farmers do not have enough land resources to produce more than their requirement.

(v) Vast under -Employment- There is a massive under-employment in the agricultural sector in India, particularly in the un-irrigated tracts. In these areas, there is a seasonal unemployment ranging from 4 to 8 months. Even in the cropping season work is not available throughout, as agricultural operations are not labour intensive.


What are the imporant strategies for agricultural development followed in the post-independence period in India?

Indian agricultural economy was largely subsistence in nature before independence. During partition about one- third of the irrigated land in undivided India went to Pakistan. 

(i)After Independence, the immediate goal of the Government was to increase foodgrains production by

(a)Switching over from cash crops to food crops.

(b)Intensification of cropping over already cultivable land.

(c)Increasing cultivated area by bringing cultivable land and fallow land under plough.

(ii)This strategy helped in increasing food grains production. But it stagnated during late 1950s. Intensive Agricultural District Programme and Intensive Agricultural Area Programme were launched to overcome to this problem.

(iii)New seed varieties of wheat and rice known as HYVs were available for cultivation by mid-1960s. Package technology including HYVs was introduced in Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat.

(iv)This strategy of agricultural development increased the foodgrains at very fast rate and this agricultural growth came to be known as Green Revolution. This strategy of agricultural development made the country self reliant in foodgrain production.

(v)Planning Commission of India initiated agro-climatic planning in 1988 to induce regionally balanced agricultural development in the country. It also emphasised the need for diversification of agriculture and harnessing of resources for development of dairy farming, poultry, horticulture etc.

What one of the following is the main reasons due to which share of forest has shown an increase in the last forty years?

  • Extensive and efficient efforts of afforestation.


  • Increase in community forest land.


  • Increase in notified area allocated for forest growth.


  • Better peoples participation in managing forest area.


Increase in notified area allocated for forest growth.



Which one of the following crops is not cultivated under dryland farming?

  • Ragi

  • Jowar

  • Groundnut

  • Sugarcane




Which one of the following is not a land-use category?

  • Fallow land

  • Marginal land

  • Net sown area

  • Culturable wasteland


Marginal land


Which one of the following is the main form of degradation in irrigated areas?

  • Gully erosion

  • Wind erosion

  • Salinisation of soils

  • Siltation of land


Salinisation of soils