Explain the challenges that India faced at the time of independence in 1947 of nation building.

India faced the following three challenges at the time of independence in 1947 :

(i) The first challenge was to shape a nation that was united, yet accommodative of the diversity in our society. India was a land of continental size and diversity. Its people spoke different languages and followed different culture and religions. At that time it aws widely believed that a country full of such kinds of diversity could not remain together for long.

(ii) The second challenge was to establish democracy. The Constitution had granted fundamental rights and extended right to vote to every citizen. India adopted Representative democracy based on the parliamentary form of goverment.The challenge was to develop democratic practices in accordance with the Constitution.

(iii) The third challenge was to ensure the development and well-being of the entire society and not only of some sections. The Constitution had adopted the principle of equality and provided special protection to socially disadvantaged groups and religious and cultural communities. The real challenge was to evolve effective policies for economic development and eradication of poverty.

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Examine the consequences of Partition.

The consequences of Partition were as examined below :

(i) The Partition led to the largest, most-abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfer of population that human history has known. Large number of people were killed in the name of religion. Lahore, Amritsar and Kolkata were divided in ‘communal zones’.

(ii) Minorities on both sides of the border fled their home and often secured shelter in ‘refugee camps’.

(iii) Thousands of women were abducted on both sides and were made to convert to the religion of the abductor and were forced into marriage.

(iv) The Partition led to division of properties, liabilities and assets, administrative apparatus and financial assets and things like tables-chairs and musical instrument of police band.

(v) The employees of the government and the railways were also divided.

(vi) It led to a violent separation of communities who had hitherto lived together as neighbours.

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Write a brief note on Sardar Patel's role in integration of Princely states .

Sardar Patel was India’s Deputy Prime Minister as well as the Home Minister during the crucial period immediately following independence. He played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of the Princely States firmly but diplomatically and bringing most of them into the Indian Union.
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Fill in the blanks:

“According to the ________ advanced by the ______-,India consisted of not

one but ________ people, _______ and Muslims.


Two-nation theory, Muslim League, two, hindus
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Match the following:
A. Bilingual Bombay State (i) Hindi and Punjabi speaking
B. Punjab (ii) 1963
C. Meghalaya (iii) Gujarati and Marathi speaking people
D. Nagaland (iv) Assam


A.

Bilingual Bombay State

(i)

Gujarati and Marathi speaking people

B.

Punjab

(ii)

Hindi and Punjabi speaking

C.

Meghalaya

(iii)

Assam

D.

Nagaland

(iv)

1963
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