Read the given passage carefully and answer the following questions :

Above all, the linguistic states underlined the acceptance of the principle of diversity. When we say that India adopted democracy, it does not simply mean that India embraced a democratic constitution, nor does it merely mean that India adopted the format of elections. The choice was larger than that. It was a choice in favour of recognising and accepting the existence of differences which could at times be oppositional. Democracy, in other words, was associated with plurality of ideas and ways of life.

(i) What is meant by ‘linguistic states’ ?

(ii) Why were linguistic states formed in India ? Explain any two reasons.

(iii) How is democracy in India associated with plurality of ideas and ways of life ?

(i) Linguistic states are those created on the basis of language.

 (ii) (a) It was hoped that if the demands for separate states on linguistic basis are accepted, the threat of division and separation would be reduced.

 (b) Accommodation of regional demands and the formation of Linguistic states were seen as more democratic.

 (iii) India is country with different religions and cultures. In India principle of diversity is an accepted norms.


Analyse any six consequence of the partition of Indian in 1947

Consequences of partition of India in 1947

(i) The Year 1947 was the year of one of the largest, most abrupt,
unplanned and tragic transfer of population that human history has known.
(ii) There were killing and atrocities in the name of religion on both the sides.
(iii) Thousands of women were abducted.
(iv) People were forced to abandon their homes and move across the
(v) Women were killed by their own family members to preserve family
(vi) All the intellectuals in various fields expressed their grief and anger.
(vii) Minorities on both sides of border, fled their homes and secured
temporary shelter in refugee camps.


Name the leader who played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of princely states to join the Indian Union.

Sardar Vallabh Patel


Explain any three consequences of partition of British India in 1947. 


Explain the process and basis of the reorganisation of States of Indian Union.


Consequences of Partition:

 (i) Most abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfer of population that human history has known. There were killings and atrocities on both sides of the border. Cities like Amritsar and Kolkata divided into communal zones. People were forced to abandon their homes and move across borders, they went through immense sufferings.

 (ii) Thousands of women were abducted on both sides of the border, they were forced to change the religion and were forced into marriage. Many children were separated from their parents.

 (iii) The Partition was a division of properties, liabilities and assets as well as a political division of the country and the administrative apparatus. 


(i) The formation of Andhra Pradesh spurred the struggle for making of other states on linguistic lines in other parts of the country.

 (ii) This struggle forced the central government into appointing a State Reorganization Commission in 1953 for redrawing of the boundaries of States.

 (iii) The Commission recommended boundaries should reflect the boundaries of different languages.

 (iv) On the basis of its report, the State Reorganization Act was passed in 1956. This led to the creation of 14 States and six Union Territories. 


Describe the external and internal disputes responsible for making the politics of
Jammu and Kashmir continuously controversial.

 External Dispute
(i) Pakistan’s claim on Kashmir.
(ii) Pakistan has illegally occupied part of Kashmir known as Pak Occupied Kashmir (POK) and calls it Azad Kashmir, which is part of India.
(iii) Training camps for militants in POK and support to militancy within J&K. 

Internal Dispute

(i) Status of Kashmir within the Indian Union. 
(ii) Special status of J&K under Article.370 
(iii) Two views :
(a) People outside J&K believe that Article 370 does not allow full integration of the state with India.
(b) Within J&K people believe that the demand for plebisite has not been fulfilled, special status has been eroded, democracy not properly institutionalized as in the rest of India.


“The accommodation of regional demands and the formation of linguistic states were also seen as more democratic”. Justify the statement with any three suitable arguments.


Examine the different areas of agreement and disagreement with respect to the model of economic development to be adopted in India after independence.

Arguments for justification:

i. It is almost 60 years that the formation of Linguistic States have changed the nature of democratic politics in a positive and constructive way.

ii. Formation on the basis of language became a uniform basis for drawing the state boundaries. It has united the country rather than leading to disintegration.

iii. Regional aspirations when fulfilled, give strength to the people and make democracy a success. Many a regional aspirations are being accommodated to strengthen the democracy.


Areas of agreement:

i. Development of India should mean both economic growth and social and economic justice.

ii. The matter of development can not be left to businessmen, industrialists and farmers only but the government should play a key role.

iii. The task of poverty alleviation and social and economic redistribution was being seen as the primary responsibility of Government.

Areas of disagreement:

i. Disagreement on the kind of role to be played by the government.

ii. Disagreement over the importance attached to the needs of justice if it differed from the economic growth.

iii. Disagreement on the issue of giving priority to Industries v/s Agriculture & private v/s public sector.