Which characteristics made the Congress an ideological coalition during the freedom movement of India ?
It brought together diverse groups, whose interests were often contradictory. Peasants and industrialists, urban dwellers and villagers, workers and owners, middle, lower, upper classes and castes, all found space in the congress.
It accommodated the revolutionary and pacifist, conservatives and radical, extremist and moderate and the right, left and all shades of the centre. The congress was a ’platform’ for numerous groups, interests and even political parties to take part in the national movement.
What forced the Union Government of India to appoint the States Re-organization Commission in 1953? Mention its two main recommendations. Name any four new States formed after 1956.
Describe the various steps taken to hold the first general elections in India. How far these elections were successful?
(i) The Election commission of India was set up.
(ii) Boundaries of the electoral constituencies were drawn.
(iii) Electoral rolls of all the citizens eligible to vote were prepared.
(iv) Officers and polling staff to conduct the elections were trained by Election Commission. The level of participation was encouraging-more than half the eligible voters turned out to vote on the day of elections. When the results were declared these were accepted as fair even by the losers. India’s general election of 1952 became a landmark in the history of democracy all the world. It proved that democracy could be practiced anywhere in the world.
Match the following:
|A. S. A. Dange||(i) Bharatiya Jan Sangh|
|B. Shyam Prasad Mukerjee||(ii) Swatantra Party|
|C. Minoo Masani||(iii) Praja Socialist Party|
|D. Ashok Mehta||(iv) Communist Party of India|
S. A. Dange
Communist Party of India
Shyam Prasad Mukerjee
Bharatiya Jan Sangh
Praja Socialist Party
Match the following:
|A. A politically controversial appointment||(i) Charu Mjumdar|
|B. Led the Railway strike in 1974||(ii) Jayaprakash Narayan|
|C. Declined to join Nehru’s Cabinet||(iii) George Fernandes|
|D. Died in police custody||(iv) Justice A.N. Ray|
A politically controversial appointment
Justice A.N. Ray
Led the Railway strike in 1974
Declined to join Nehru’s Cabinet
Died in police custody
Explain any three causes of the split in the Congress Party in 1969.
Explain the circumstances that led to the mid-term elections in 1980. Cause of split in the Congress Party in 1969
(i) Differences between Indira and the Syndicate
(ii) Nomination of N. Sanjeev Reddy as official candidate for the post of President of India in 1969, which was against the wishes of Indira Gandhi.
(iii) Revolutionary steps taken by Indira Gandhi were not welcomed by the old Congress leaders .
(iv) Indira Gandhi supported V.V.Giri as an independent Candidate for the post of President of India.
(v) The defeat of N. Sanjeev Reddy led to the split of the Congress Party Circumstances that led to the mid-term election in 1980
(i) The opposition to an emergency could not keep the Janta Party together for a long time . The Janta Party lacked direction,leadership and a common programme.
(ii) Janta party government could not bring about a fundamental change in policies from those pursued by the Congress earlier.
(iii) The Janta Party split and the government which was led by Morarji Desai lost its majority in less than 18 months.
(iv) Another government headed by Charan Singh was formed on the assurance of the support of the Congress Party. But the Congress Party later decided to withdraw its support with the result that Charan Singh Government could remain in powerfor just four months.
Evaluate any three factors that helped the congress to continue to dominate the Indian political scenario for almost three decades after independence.
What was Green Revolution? Mention it’s any two positive and any two negative consequences.
The factors that helped the congress to continue to dominate the Indian political scenario for almost three decades after independence are:
(i) It had inherited the legacy of national movement. The Congress was the only party to have organization spread all over the country.
(iii) The party had Jawaharlal Nehru the most popular and charismatic leader in Indian politics. He led the congress campaign and toured through the country.
(iv) Congress was all inclusive- a social and ideological coalition and had transformed into a rainbow-like social coalition, which accommodated the revolutionary as well as pacifist.
Green Revolution was a policy of putting more resources into those areas which already had irrigation and those farmers who were already well-off to help increase production rapidly in the short run. In this, high- yielding variety seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and better irrigation at highly subsidised prices offered.
(i) The green revolution delivered agricultural growth with a rise in wheat production.
(ii) It raised the availability of food in the country.
(i) Some regions like Punjab and Western Uttar Pradesh became agriculturally prosperous, while others remained backward.
(ii) It resulted in the rise of what is called the middle peasant sections.