Turning their backs to the sun, they journeyed through centuries.
Now, now we must refuse to be pilgrims of darkness.
That one, our father, carrying, carrying the darkness is now bent;
Now, now we must lift the burden from his back.
Our blood was spilled for this glorious city
And what we got was the right to eat stones
Now, now we must explode the building that kisses the sky!
After a thousand years we were blessed with sunflower giving fakir;
Now, now, we must like sunflowers turn our faces to the sun.
(i) Who wrote this poem originally in Marathi ?
(ii) What do you understand by ‘pilgrims of darkness’ ?
(iii) Who was the ‘Sunflower giving fakir’ that blessed the ‘pilgrims of darkness’ ?
(iv) What is expressed by the poems?
(ii) ‘The pilgrims of darkness’ were the Dalit communities who had experienced brutal caste injustices for a long time in our society.
(iii) The ‘sunflower giving fakir’ was Dr. B. R. Ambedkar who has been referred to as their liberator.
(iv) Such poems were expressions of anguish that the Dalit masses continued to face even after twenty years of independence.
(ii) Some party-based movements continued in the post-independence period, for example Trade Union movement in Mumbai, Kolkata and Kanpur. All major political parties have their own trade union for mobilising these sections of workers.
(iii) Peasants in Telangana organised agitations under the leadership of Communist parties. Marxist-Leninist worked organised agitations of agricultural labourers in Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Bihar on the issues of economic injustice and inequality.
(iv) These movements do not take part in elections formally and yet retain connections with political parties to ensure a better representation of the demands of diverse social sections in party politics.
|A. Chipko Movement||(i) West Bengal|
|B. Naxalite Movement||(ii) Maharashtra|
|C. Dalit Panthers||(iii) Western UP|
|D. Bharatiya Kisan Union||(iv) Uttarakhand|
D.Bharatiya Kisan Union
“_________ of Maharastra declared the farmers’ movement as a war of _______ (symbolising rural,_______ sector) against forces of India (_______ sector).
(i) These movements focus on a single issue.
(ii) They represent the interest of one section of society only e.g., Dalit Panthers for Dalits only or BKU for rich farmers of Western UP and Haryana.
(iii) There is no broad alliance that is a necessity in a democracy to act as a pressure group.
(iv) Political parties do not take up the issues relating to marginal social groups.