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The Crisis of Democratic Order

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Politics In India Since Independence

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Political Science

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Class 10 Class 12

How far do you agree that the proclamation of emergency weakened the federal distribution of power in India ?


Once an emergency is proclaimed, the federal distribution of powers remains practically suspended and all the powers are concentrated in the hands of the union government.

1020 Views

Analyse any three lessons learnt from the emergency of 1975.

OR

Analyse any three major factors which led the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s government in the early 1970s.


The Lessons:

(i)Extremely difficult to do away with democracy in India.

(ii)It brought out some ambiguities regarding the emergency provision in the constitution that have been rectified.

(iii)Emergency made every citizen aware of their rights and civil liberties.

                                                                       OR

The factors are responsible for the popularity of Indira Gandhi:

(i) The popular slogan of ‘Garibi Hatao’.

(ii) Nationalisation of Banks.

(iii) Abolition of Privy Purse.

873 Views

Describe any three elements of growing consensus among most of the political parties of India after 1989.


Elements of growing consensus
(i) Agreement on new economic policies : Most parties were in support of the new economic policies and believed that these policies would lead the country to prosperity and a status of economic power in the world.

(ii) Acceptance of the political and social claims of the backward castes : Political parties had recognized that the social and political claims of the Backward Castes need to be accepted and support reservation of seats for OBC in education and employment.

(iii) Acceptance of the role of State level parties in governance of the country: State level parties were sharing power at the national level and had played a central role in the country’s politics.

(iv) Emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliances without ideological agreement as most parties of the NDA did not agree with the ‘Hindutava’ ideology of the BJP. Yet, they came together to form a government and remained in power for a full term.

659 Views

 ‘Was the declaration of emergency in 1975 necessary?’ Support your answer with any three suitable arguments.

                                                                    Or

Explain any three lessons learnt from the emergency imposed in 1975. 


Yes, the declaration of Emergency in 1975 was necessary.

 Arguments:

 (i) Internal disturbances and agitations in the country.

 (ii) Grave crises had arisen which made the proclamation necessary.

 (iii) Political mood of the country had turned hostile.

                                                                                      Or
Lesson learnt from Emergency:

 (i) One lesson of Emergency is that it is extremely difficult to do away with democracy in India.

(ii) It brought out some ambiguities regarding the Emergency provisions in the Constitution that have been rectified since.

(iii) Emergency made every one more aware of the value of civil liberties.

922 Views

Why is emergency considered to be one of the most controversial episodes

in Indian politics? Analyse any three reasons.


Due to the following reasons the emergency became controversial.

(i) The Constitution simply mentioned internal disturbance as the reason for declaring emergency. Before 1975 emergency was never proclaimed on this ground.

(ii) People had the right to politically protest against the government. The Bihar and Gujarat agitation were mostly peaceful and non-violent. Those who were arrested were never tried for any anti-national activity.

(iii) The Home ministry, which is entrusted with the responsibility of
monitoring the external situation of the country, also did not express any concern about the law and order situation in the country.

(iv) There was no need to suspend democratic functioning and use draconian measures like the emergency.

546 Views

Why was the national emergency declared in India on June 25, 1975? Analyse any three consequences of this emergency.

OR

Evaluate any three factors which were responsible for Indira Gandhi’s achieving a thumping majority in 1971 Lok Sabha elections.


The reasons were:

(i) Internal disturbances and agitations in the country.

(ii) Grave crises had arisen which made the proclamation necessary.

(iii) Political mood of the country had turned hostile.

Consequences:

(i) According to Shah Commission nearly one lakh eleven thousand people were arrested under Preventive detention laws.

(ii) Torture and custodial deaths occurred, arbitrary relocation of poor people and compulsory sterilization.

(iii) Democratic functioning were suspended and draconian measures were adopted.

OR

Three factors which were responsible for Indira Gandhi’s achieving a thumping majority in 1971 Lok Sabha elections are:

(i) She focused on the growth of the public sector and imposed ceiling on rural land holdings and urban property.

(ii) Through ‘Garibi Hatao’ she had generated a support base among the disadvantaged, Dalits, Adivasis and minorities.

(iii) The crisis in East Pakistan and Indo-Pak war leading to the establishment of Bangladesh had shown characteristic features of statesman and strong nationalist leader.

794 Views