(a) PCR (b) Restriction enzymes and DNA
(b) Restriction enzymesare called “molecular scissors” or chemical scalpels. Restriction enzymes, synthesized by micro-organisms as a defence mechanism which can cleave double-stranded DNA at specific sites called recognition sequences. The recognition sequence is a palindrome, where the sequence of base pairs reads the same on both the DNA strands, when the orientation of reading is kept the same.
(c) Chitinase. are hydrolytic enzymes used to degrade chitin . It is used to break the cell open to release DNA along with other macromolecules such as RNA, proteins, polysaccharides and also lipids.
(a) Origin of replication (b) Bioreactor (c) Downstream processing
(b) Bioreactor are vessels in which raw materials are biologically converted into specific products using microbial, plant or human cells. It provides optimal conditions for achieving the desired product by providing optimum growth conditions, pH, substrate salts, vitamins, oxygen, etc.
(c) Downstream processing.are the series of processes which a genetically modified product undergoes before it is ready to be marketed. It generally involves processes like separation and purification.