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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12
What is health ?

It is a state of complete, physical, mental and social well being of a person.

What is the mechanism by which the AIDS virus causes deficiency of immune system of the infected person?

AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) is caused by the Human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV).  The HIV virus enters the human body by various methods like sharing infected needles, unprotected sexual contact with infected person, or infected blood transfusion. After entering the virus attacks and enters the macrophages. Inside the macrophages, the RNA of the virus is used to produce viral DNA by the process of reverse transcription. The viral DNA integrates itself into the host DNA and directs the synthesis of virus particles. Simultaneously the  HIV enters helper T- lymphocytes and replicates to produce viral progeny there. The cell ruptures and releases newly formed progeny viruses into the blood, attacking other healthy helper T-lymphocytes in the body. As a result, the number of T-lymphocytes in the body of an infected person decreases progressively, thereby decreasing the immunity of a person.

In your view what motivates youngsters to take to alcohol or drugs and how can this be avoided?

There are several reasons that motivate youngsters towards alcohol or drugs. Curiosity, need for adventure and excitement, experimentation are the initial causes of motivation. Some youngsters start consuming drugs and alcohol in order to overcome negative emotions such as stress, pressure, depression, frustration etc while others do it to be in sync with the modern society or due to peer pressure. Several mediums like television, internet, newspaper, movies etc. are also responsible for promoting the idea of alcohol consumption to the younger generation.
The measures that can be taken to prevent this can be:
(a) Parents should understand their children and be supportive. They should motivate and try to increase the will power of their child.
(b) Parents should educate their children about the ill-effects of alcohol. They should provide them with proper knowledge and counselling regarding the consequences of addiction to alcohol.
(c)  Children should be encouraged to devote their energy in other extra- curricular and recreational activities.
(d) Proper professional and medical help should be provided to a child if sudden symptoms of depression and frustration are observed.


List the harmful effects caused by alcohol/drug abuse.

Alcohol and drugs have various adverse effects:
Alcohol and drug abuse lead to reckless and rash behaviour, depression, fatigue, aggression and violence.  It has several ill effects on the body, like damage to the liver and the nervous system, loss of weight and appetite, respiratory problems, heart failure, resulting coma and death. Use of needles may lead to transmission of AIDS. Consumption of excess alcohol by any family member can have devastating effects on the family. It leads to several domestic problems such as quarrels, frustrations, insecurity, etc. The person shows rash behaviour, violence, loss of interest in social and other activities. The person becomes a menace for family and society. 


Why is that once a person starts taking alcohol or drugs, it is difficult to get rid of this habit? Discuss it with your teacher.

People who start taking drugs becomes addicted with the feelings of euphoria and the temporary feeling of well-being associated with their intake. Such things leads to increased consumption and more addiction. Once addicted it is very difficult for a person to get rid of the habit. The discontinuation results in the manifestation of withdrawal syndrome. Withdrawal syndrome is characterized by anxiety, shakiness, nausea, vomiting, increased heart rate, uneasiness, all of which are relieved only on the consumption of the drug. In some cases the withdrawal symptoms may be severe and life threatening. Moreover the psychological dependence makes it very difficult for the individual to get rid of the addiction.



Do you think that friends can influence one to take alcohol/ drugs ? If yes, how may one protect himself/herself from such an influence ?

Yes, Friends can influence one to take drugs/alcohol. The  undue peer pressure and a race to be trendy and cool may influence one to take alcohol/drugs.
One may protect himself/herself from such an influence by adopting the following methods :

(1) By practising good habits and avoiding undue peer pressure.

(2) By attaining proper education and counseling.

(3) By seeking help from the parents and teachers.

(4) By maintaining good company.

(5) By seeking  medical help if required.